2-Minute Neuroscience: Glial Cells
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  • Release Date: 2024-04-03
Playlist
  • microglia
  • macroglia
  • astrocytes
  • oligodendrocytes
  • Schwann cell
  • neuron
Video Introduction

The content is sourced from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AwES6R1_9PM

Glia is Greek for glue, and glial cells got this name b/c they were thought to simply hold neurons in place. We now know, however, that glia have many other functions. Glial cells can be divided into two classes: microglia and macroglia. Microglia act as the primary immune defense of the central nervous system. They travel throughout the brain and spinal cord and remove things like damaged neurons, pathogens, or other foreign substances.The rest of the glial cells I’ll discuss are considered macroglia. 

Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells with many functions, which include providing nutrient support to neurons, helping repair damage to nervous system tissue, regulating communication between neurons, and maintaining the blood-brain-barrier, which keeps potentially toxic substances in the blood from entering the brain. Oligodendrocytees and schwann cells are both responsible for covering neurons with an insulatory material called myelin. Oligodendrocytes myelinate neurons in the central nervous system and schwann cells myelinate neurons in the peripheral nervous system.

Ependymal cells are found in the walls of the ventricles, where they produce cerebrospinal fluid, which then circulates around the brain, performing many functions including protecting the brain from injury and removing waste products from the brain. Radial glia are involved in neurogenesis and neural development. They can give birth to new neurons and also serve as a scaffold along which new neurons can travel from their site of origin to their final destination in the brain. Satellite cells surround neurons in some parts of the peripheral nervous system, playing a protective and supportive role. Although their role is not fully understood, it is thought they might be involved with regulating the neuronal environment of some peripheral nervous system neurons.[1]

References
  1. Vanderah TW, Gould DJ. Nolte's The Human Brain. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016.
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Challenged, N. 2-Minute Neuroscience: Glial Cells. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/video/video_detail/1151 (accessed on 25 May 2024).
Challenged N. 2-Minute Neuroscience: Glial Cells. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/video/video_detail/1151. Accessed May 25, 2024.
Challenged, Neuroscientifically. "2-Minute Neuroscience: Glial Cells" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/video/video_detail/1151 (accessed May 25, 2024).
Challenged, N. (2024, April 03). 2-Minute Neuroscience: Glial Cells. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/video/video_detail/1151
Challenged, Neuroscientifically. "2-Minute Neuroscience: Glial Cells." Encyclopedia. Web. 03 April, 2024.
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