Nematophagous fungi (NFs), which are responsible for soil suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes, are multitrophic biocontrol agents. This raises the question of the transition between lifestyles (e.g., endophytism vs. egg parasitism). The NF Pochonia chlamydosporia colonises food crops and promotes their growth and yield. When colonising the plant, P. chlamydosporia induces the plant immunity (PI). However, it also evades the PI. To do this, both endophytic NF and pathogenic fungi (PF) secrete LysM effectors (LysM-effs). LysM effectors have been shown to have diverse functions in different organisms, including the protection of fungal chitin from plant chitinases. P. chlamydosporia is resistant to chitosan, which modulates gene expression in fungi and plants and has antimicrobial properties. P. chlamydosporia chitin deacetylases (CDA) and chitosanases (CSN) also help P. chlamydosporia evade plant immunity, resist exogenous chitosan, and are induced during fungal infection of nematode eggs. NF-chitosan formulations are new biomanagement tools against plant parasitic nematodes, fungal wilt pathogens and insect pests that currently threaten food security crops. Furthermore, omics techniques are useful tools to elucidate the role of CDAs, CSNs, LysM-effs, adhesion proteins and carbohydrate-active enzymes in pathogen–BCA–plant interactions, adhesion and infection to nematode eggs and their modulation by chitosan.
Triticale, a hybrid of wheat and rye, is one of the most promising grain crops. In terms of productivity, the level of metabolizable energy, and the composition of essential amino acids, triticale surpasses rye and is not inferior to wheat. It is resistant to the most dangerous diseases and pests. In terms of nutritional value, triticale can compete with wheat, corn, sorghum, and barley. The presence, however, of antinutrients in triticale such as non-starch polysaccharides, alkylresorcinols, and trypsin inhibitors significantly reduces the biological value of this crop. In the global practice of compound feed production, there are many methods and technologies for processing grain raw materials to increase their nutritional value. Enzymatic treatment and extrusion technologies are worthy of special attention. The high content of triticale in the compound feed of poultry breeder flocks should be used effectively, taking into account the characteristics of triticale varieties and climatic conditions. An optimal triticale level in feed (15% for layer and broiler chicks) may improve body weight gain and reduce feed costs when raising replacement young stock. Layer breeder flocks fed a 20% triticale-based diet may have increased egg production, high viability, and flock uniformity. Producing triticale–soy and triticale–sunflower extrudates and supplementing the diet of poultry flocks with essential amino acids represent promising avenues for maximizing the benefits of triticale. Innovative methods of achieving this goal should be further developed and put into practice, particularly given the expansion of triticale’s cultivation areas.
Research in architecture and urbanism is a complex undertaking. It involves a multitude of challenges, approaches, variables, diverse scales, and types of environments to examine. This entry dives into the complexities of architectural and urban research and explores the integration of diverse approaches into various research topics or domains. Recognizing the dynamic interplay of human, cultural, technological, and environmental factors in architecture and urbanism, it proposes a transdisciplinary approach to bridge existing disciplinary and methodological boundaries. This entry adopts and operationalizes a comprehensive approach that encompasses hybrid scenario development, integrated socio-spatial analysis, a revised experiential approach, and the integration of environmental psychology into architectural and urban studies. These components are envisioned to harmonize various methodologies and to depict a picture of what research in architecture and urbanism could be within an identified set of domains. This approach is grounded in a rigorous literature review, empirical evidence, and relevant validation through case studies. The application of this approach instigates a series of research scenarios which act as frameworks that provide new insights into design and practice-based research, building anatomy research, city dynamics research, housing dynamics research, and user perception studies. Each scenario demonstrates the applicability of combining theoretical insights with empirical investigations. The implications of these scenarios for architectural and urban research emphasize the significance of transdisciplinarity and highlights the importance of integrating diverse theoretical tenets and methodological insights to address the complex challenges of research in architecture and urbanism.