A doctoral student is one undertaking the highest level of university study, leading to a doctoral qualification (of which the traditional and most common form is the PhD), that typically requires they demonstrate a significant contribution to knowledge and their own preparedness to undertake independent research. Crisis in this entry is taken to be a time of great difficulty or a time when a difficult or important decision must be made. In the context of doctoral students, a crisis often brings a threat to the completion of the doctorate.
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD), which is diagnosed on the basis of reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), increased albuminuria, or both, is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Future projections anticipate a significant increase in diabetes cases, with close to 700 million diabetes patients internationally by the year 2045. Amidst ongoing research into novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for DKD, the current clinical preventative strategy for DKD involves (1) intensive glycemic control, (2) treatment of associated co-morbidities (hypertension and hyperlipidemia), and (3) instruction on lifestyle modifications, including smoking cessation, exercise, and dietary habits. In addition to these three categories, patient education on renal injury, a fourth category, is equally important and necessary in the collaborative effort to reduce global rates of DKD. In this entry, authors highlight and discuss these four core categories for DKD prevention.
This review proposes a concise literature review aimed at identifying the current body of knowledge on the adoption of Social Networks in crisis management. The major input is a structured research question based on the initial reading about the topic. Before the recent pandemic, most literature focused on local crises, with relatively few exceptions. Additionally, self-organising systems are spontaneously established between people who are affected by a crisis. The fundamental assumption underlying this study is the huge potential of Social Networks in the field of crisis management. That is supported, directly or indirectly, by a number of previous studies, which emphasise how effective adoption leads to better decision-making for crisis managers and local communities. Among the identified challenges is the need to integrate official communication by emergency agencies with citizen-generated content in a contest for credibility and trustworthiness. In certain cases, it has been reported that there is a lack of specific competence, knowledge, and expertise, as well as a lack of sufficient policies and guidelines for the use of Social Networks. Those challenges need to be framed by considering the classic difficulties of providing timely and accurate information to deal with fake news, unverified or misleading information, and information overload. Bridging major gaps through advanced analytics and AI-based technology is expected to provide a key contribution to establishing and safely enabling the practice of effective and efficient communication. This technology can help contrast dissonant mental models, which are often fostered by Social Networks, and enable shared situational awareness. Future research may take a closer look at AI technology and its impact on the role of Social Networks in managing crises.