Charter schools are educational institutions in the United States funded through taxation but operated privately under a charter or contract with a public entity, providing alternative public education options to families. Charter schools are subject to fewer rules and regulations and have greater autonomy than traditional public schools over operations, curriculum, and instruction, although have greater stakes in school accountability.
Isophorone is a technically important compound used as a high-boiling-point solvent for coatings, adhesives, etc., and it is used as a starting material for various valuable compounds, including isophorone diisocyanate, a precursor for polyurethanes. For over 80 years, isophorone has been synthesized via base-catalyzed self-condensation of acetone. This reaction has a complex reaction mechanism with numerous possible reaction steps including the formation of isophorone, triacetone dialcohol, and ketonic resins. This review provides an overview of the different production processes of isophorone in liquid- and vapor-phase and reviews the literature-reported selectivity toward isophorone achieved using different reaction parameters and catalysts.
Primary progenitor tenocytes are diploid cells that may be cultured in vitro and therapeutically used for allogeneic musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. Firstly, technical aspects of cell banking, biotechnological manufacturing, and extensive preclinical characterization data have confirmed that FE002-Ten primary progenitor tenocytes may be safely considered for human cytotherapeutic use (e.g., in tissue engineering products, standardized transplants). Parallelly, lyophilized progenitor tenocyte extracts (e.g., stabilized cells or cell-free derivatives) were shown to optimally act as potent hyaluronan-based hydrogel functionalizing agents, useful for stability enhancement against oxidative product degradation. Therefore, primary progenitor tenocytes (e.g., FE002-Ten cell source) may potentially be used in diverse clinical presentations of tendon-related pathologies, ranging from volumetric tissue replacement (i.e., for the promotion of enhanced graft bio-integration) to local management of tissular inflammation and pain (i.e., ancillary action of the cellular extracts for the functional enhancement of injectable hyaluronan-based preparations). Overall, the primary progenitor tenocytes investigated under the Swiss progenitor cell transplantation program were shown to represent highly standardized biotechnological materials with a versatility of potential therapeutic uses after formulation into an array of cytotherapeutic preparations or cell-free devices.