Social life is a key feature in humans; without it, language, science, and technology would not have appeared. The inclination to engage with others is also a main source of pleasure and pain and as such a key factor for quality of life. In this paper, I shall present current knowledge on the evolutionary trajectory leading to the four main types of relations: parent–child, pair-bonding, kinship, and social life (bonding between non-kin for purposes other than breeding). These relationships are not unique to humans; they have evolved independently multiple times across the animal kingdom. In our lineage, the origins of parent–child bonding may be traced back to the early amniotes some 320 Mya (million years ago). Pair-bonding and social life most likely evolved recently. Understanding how these affiliations are rooted in the brain, particularly the role of feelings, provides valuable insights that can help us improve society.
With the rise of individualism as a social trend and the wide use of the Internet and social media, today’s customers increasingly want to design and build unique products that fit their individual preferences and needs. Mass individualization is defined as a manufacturing paradigm that aims to produce individualized products cost-effectively. This paradigm differs from the previous paradigms in which the manufacturing company designed and manufactured the products, and the customer chose a product. In the mass individualization paradigm, the customers will be actively involved in product design, and the manufacturer will produce a unique product for each customer at a reasonable cost and of reliable quality. Due to the need for smooth communication and interactions between the buyer and the factory, new factories for individualized products will be located near potential buyers, which will have a significant impact on local economies. This entry explores the relationship between mass individualization and other emerging manufacturing paradigms and concepts in the Industry 4.0/5.0 era, and discusses how smart factories can improve manufacturing efficiency and facilitate the realization of the mass individualization paradigm.
Nematophagous fungi (NFs), which are responsible for soil suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes, are multitrophic biocontrol agents. This raises the question of the transition between lifestyles (e.g., endophytism vs. egg parasitism). The NF Pochonia chlamydosporia colonises food crops and promotes their growth and yield. When colonising the plant, P. chlamydosporia induces the plant immunity (PI). However, it also evades the PI. To do this, both endophytic NF and pathogenic fungi (PF) secrete LysM effectors (LysM-effs). LysM effectors have been shown to have diverse functions in different organisms, including the protection of fungal chitin from plant chitinases. P. chlamydosporia is resistant to chitosan, which modulates gene expression in fungi and plants and has antimicrobial properties. P. chlamydosporia chitin deacetylases (CDA) and chitosanases (CSN) also help P. chlamydosporia evade plant immunity, resist exogenous chitosan, and are induced during fungal infection of nematode eggs. NF-chitosan formulations are new biomanagement tools against plant parasitic nematodes, fungal wilt pathogens and insect pests that currently threaten food security crops. Furthermore, omics techniques are useful tools to elucidate the role of CDAs, CSNs, LysM-effs, adhesion proteins and carbohydrate-active enzymes in pathogen–BCA–plant interactions, adhesion and infection to nematode eggs and their modulation by chitosan.