Eruca sativa Miller (Brassicaceae) is an insect-pollinated diploid annual species which grows spontaneously in the entire Mediterranean basin from semi-arid to arid-hot conditions and is cultivated in Northern America, Europe, and Asia as either salad or oilseed crop. Here, some essential background was provided on this versatile crop, summarizing the present status of Eruca sativa research focusing on the wealth of bioactive ingredients in its seeds, which may find exploitation in agriculture, in the food industries and as nutraceuticals for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Fatty acids of Eruca sativa seed oil, gums, glucosinolates and soluble and insoluble phenol and flavonoid fractions in the defatted press cake are the main bioactive compounds considered to date by the scientific literature and that deserve attention for their physical and biological activities.
In a globalized context, characterized by dominant trends towards the homogenization of food products and taste, local and niche productions play a vital role in creating effective strategies of territorial development. Albanian food heritage is definitely one of the most various of the Western Balkans. The Ottoman domination and the Mediterranean position just in front of Italy led to an incredible mix of cultures and traditions. As Albania is a candidate to join the European Union, it has a stronger opportunity of protecting its excellent-quality food products with PDO and PGI marks. Moreover, Albania’s territory shares fundamental features with Gargano lakes, especially with relation to the county of Dibër, where Ulez and Shkopet lakes are located. Both the areas’ traditional food products are and can be an important factor of sustainable and participatory development, and the present contribution aims at exploring possible paths of territorial development at a cross-border level, in the framework of a sort of “dialogue” between the two regions through Geographical Indications (GIs).
Glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease, has a varied pathogenesis scenario, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and hypoxic conditions in the retina. Consequently, degenerating optic axons at the optic nerve head are observed clinically when extensive damage has already occurred. Following elevated IOP, changes in retinal ganglion cells lead to apoptosis immediately followed by degeneration of their optic axons. Degradation of axons leads to cupping of the optic nerve head and visual field losses. Here we emphasize that it is the retinal ganglion cells that are initial targets of elevated IOP, and, together with hyperactivity of retinal astrocytes, create the ischemic conditions which represent the earliest sign in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.