Topic Review
‘Helete Güneşi’, a New Walnut Cultivar
‘Helete Güneşi’ was selected among different genotypes obtained from crossing ‘Maraş 18’ × ‘Chandler’ in Turkey. The present study compares phenological and pomological traits of ‘Helete Güneşi’ with those of its parents so as to scale their performances. ‘Helete Güneşi’ staged leaf out on 22 April, whereas its parents, ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’, did on 20 and 12 April, respectively. The harvest date of ‘Helete Güneşi’ was as early as 17 September, whereas ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’ began to be harvested on 5 October and 15 September, respectively. Defoliation in ‘Helete Güneşi’ occurred about 1 month earlier than ‘Chandler’. The nut weight and kernel percentage of ‘Helete Güneşi’ were 13.41 g and 53.39%, respectively, whereas in ‘Chandler’ the values were 12.73 g and 48.23%, respectively, but were 14.62 g and 53.76% in ‘Maraş 18’. ‘Helete Güneşi’ had a higher yield value compared to its parents. The results demonstrated that ‘Helete Güneşi’ has superior traits in being selected for late leafing date, early harvest date, high yield, and good nut quality. Therefore, it can be considered as a valuable genetic resource in future breeding programs around the world.
  • 314
  • 02 Dec 2021
Topic Review
“Singing” Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors and Mitigation Methods
Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors (MLCC) have a major role in modern electronic devices due to their small price and size, large range of capacitance, small ESL and ESR, and good frequency response. Unfortunately, the main dielectric material used for MLCCs, Barium Titanate, makes the capacitors vibrate due to the piezoelectric and electrostrictive effects. This vibration is transferred to the PCB, making it resonate in the audible range of 20 Hz–20 kHz, and in this way the singing capacitors phenomenon occurs. This phenomenon is usually measured with a microphone, to measure the sound pressure level, or with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), to measure the vibration. Besides this, other methods are mentioned in the literature, for example, the optical fiber and the active excitation method. There are several solutions to attenuate or even eliminate the acoustic noise caused by MLCC. Specially designed capacitors for low acoustic levels and different layout geometries are only two options found in the literature. To prevent the singing capacitor phenomenon, different simulations can be performed, the harmonic analysis being the most popular technique. 
  • 273
  • 06 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Amsterdam (VOC Ship)
The Amsterdam (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌɑmstərˈdɑm] (listen)) was an 18th-century cargo ship of the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC). The VOC was established in 1602. The ship started its maiden voyage from Texel to Batavia on 8 January 1749, but was wrecked in a storm on the English Channel on 26 January 1749. The shipwreck was discovered in 1969 in the bay of Bulverhythe, near Hastings on the English south coast, and is sometimes visible during low tides. The wreck site is protected under the Protection of Wrecks Act since 1974. Some of the findings from the site are in The Shipwreck Museum in Hastings. A replica of the ship is on display in Amsterdam.
  • 7
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
The 105×617mm (4.1 inch) also known as 105 × 617 R is a common, NATO-standard, tank gun cartridge used in 105mm guns such as those derived from the Royal Ordnance L7. The 105 × 617 R cartridge was originally developed from the 84 mm (3.3 in) calibre Ordnance QF 20-pounder 84 × 618R cartridge as part of the development of the L7 105 mm rifled gun.
  • 90
  • 03 Nov 2022
Topic Review
15 Minute City
The 15-minute city is a residential urban concept in which all city residents are able to meet most of their needs within a short walk or bicycle ride from their homes. The concept was popularized by Mayor Anne Hidalgo of Paris, who was in turn inspired by French-Colombian scientist Carlos Moreno. It has been described as a "return to a local way of life. 15-minute cities are built from a series of 15-minute neighborhoods, also known as complete communities or walkable neighborhoods.
  • 34
  • 15 Nov 2022
Topic Review
16:9 (1.77:1) (16:9 = 42:32) is an aspect ratio with a width of 16 units and height of 9. Since 2010 it has become the most common aspect ratio for televisions and computer monitors, and is also the international standard format of HDTV, Full HD, non-HD digital television and analog widescreen television. This has replaced the old 4:3 aspect ratio.
  • 33
  • 27 Oct 2022
Topic Review
3-Inch Gun M1903
The 3-inch gun M1903 and its predecessors the M1898 and M1902 were rapid fire breech-loading artillery guns with a 360-degree traverse. In some references they are called "15-pounders" due to their projectile weight. They were originally emplaced from 1899 to 1917 and served until shortly after World War II. These 3-inch guns were placed to provide fire to protect underwater mines and nets against minesweepers, and also to protect against motor torpedo boats. In some documentation they are called "mine defense guns". The 3-inch guns were mounted on pedestal mounts (or a retractable "masking parapet" mount for the M1898) that bolted into a concrete emplacement that provided cover and safety for the gun's crew.
  • 19
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
35 Mm Film
35 mm film (millimeter) is the film gauge most commonly used for motion pictures and chemical still photography (see 135 film). The name of the gauge refers to the width of the photographic film, which consists of strips 34.98 ±0.03 mm (1.377 ±0.001 inches) wide. The standard negative pulldown for movies ("single-frame" format) is four perforations per frame along both edges, which results in 16 frames per foot of film. For still photography, the standard frame has eight perforations on each side. A variety of largely proprietary gauges were devised for the numerous camera and projection systems being developed independently in the late 19th century and early 20th century, ranging from 13 to 75 mm (0.51 to 2.95 in), as well as a variety of film feeding systems. This resulted in cameras, projectors, and other equipment having to be calibrated to each gauge. The 35 mm width, originally specified as ​1 3⁄8 inches, was introduced in 1892 by William Dickson and Thomas Edison, using 120 film stock supplied by George Eastman. Film 35 mm wide with four perforations per frame became accepted as the international standard gauge in 1909, and remained by far the dominant film gauge for image origination and projection until the advent of digital photography and cinematography, despite challenges from smaller and larger gauges, because its size allowed for a relatively good trade-off between the cost of the film stock and the quality of the images captured. The gauge has been versatile in application. It has been modified to include sound, redesigned to create a safer film base, formulated to capture color, has accommodated a bevy of widescreen formats, and has incorporated digital sound data into nearly all of its non-frame areas. Eastman Kodak, Fujifilm and Agfa-Gevaert are some companies that offered 35 mm films. Today Kodak is the last remaining manufacturer of motion picture film. The ubiquity of 35 mm movie projectors in commercial movie theaters made 35 mm the only motion picture format that could be played in almost any cinema in the world, until digital projection largely superseded it in the 21st century. It is difficult to compare the quality of film to digital media, but a good estimate would be about 33.6 megapixels (67.2 megapixels DSLR Bayer equivalent) would equal one 35-millimeter high quality color frame of film.
  • 293
  • 18 Oct 2022
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting of Musculoskeletal Tissue
The musculoskeletal system is a vital body system that protects internal organs, supports locomotion, and maintains homeostatic function. Unfortunately, musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide. Although implant surgeries using autografts, allografts, and xenografts have been conducted, several adverse effects, including donor site morbidity and immunoreaction, exist. To overcome these limitations, various biomedical engineering approaches have been proposed based on an understanding of the complexity of human musculoskeletal tissue. In this review, the leading edge of musculoskeletal tissue engineering using 3D bioprinting technology and musculoskeletal tissue-derived decellularized extracellular matrix bioink is described. In particular, studies on in vivo regeneration and in vitro modeling of musculoskeletal tissue have been focused on. Lastly, the current breakthroughs, limitations, and future perspectives are described.
  • 528
  • 03 Mar 2022
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting Skin and Melanoma Models
Melanoma is a potentially fatal cancer with rising incidence, associated with enhanced sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation. Its incidence is highest in people of European descent and the ageing population. Although survival has improved due to advances in targeted and immunotherapies, new understanding of melanoma biology and disease progression is vital to improving clinical outcomes. Efforts to develop three-dimensional human skin equivalent models using biofabrication techniques, such as bioprinting, promise to deliver a better understanding of the complexity of melanoma and associated risk factors. These 3D skin models can be used as a platform for patient specific models and testing therapeutics.
  • 93
  • 11 Aug 2022
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