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Encyclopedia Entry Collections collate entries on a specific topic to build a community of authors and readers to record and popularize knowledge, and develop new ideas and research directions. These are led by Academic Editors who are experts in their field, and will published on a dedicated page on the Encyclopedia platform.
Applications of Quantum Mechanics
Academic Editor: Marek Szopa
Number of Entries: 0
Quantum mechanics is one of the most prolific theories of all time. Despite the many controversies it has aroused since its conception, its predictions have been confirmed experimentally with incredible accuracy. One of the fields that uses the quantum mechanics formalism is quantum economics—a very promising novel field of its application. The impetus for the development of this field was the emergence of programmable quantum computers. This EC aims to include relevant entries a ...More
Asian Religion
Number of Entries: 1
This entry collection features new research ideas, discoveries, and results relating to Asian religions. The geographic areas include but are not limited to South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia. With consideration of the theological, philosophical, and devotional complexity that most Asian religions share, this entry is open to a variety of themes and research methodologies. The themes covered in this entry collection explore major traditions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confuci ...More
Biopharmaceuticals Technology
Number of Entries: 96
Neurodegeneration refers to the progressive loss of neuron structure or function, which may eventually lead to cell death. Many neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and prion disease, are the results of neurodegenerative processes. Neurodegeneration can be found in many different levels of neuronal circuits in the brain, from molecules to systems. Since there is no known met ...More
Chemical Bond
Number of Entries: 25
Physics advocates research on unifying chemical bonds and recognized parallels on a different (and non-reductive) level, as per the concept of the Great Unification of Forces in Nature. From this perspective, a Physicochemical Grand Unification of Forces would be a worthy project for humankind in order to increase our undertanding of existence and to improve our lives. This entry collection aims to present an account of chemical bonds and interactions in nano- to maco-environments.
Number of Entries: 191
On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, and the disease now affects nearly every country and region. Caused by SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 continues nearly 18 months later to present significant challenges to health systems and public health in both hemispheres, as well as the economies of every country. The morbidity and mortality of the infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been significant, and various waves of disease outbreaks initially overwhelm ...More
Environmental Sciences
Number of Entries: 206
Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today, it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental studies are incorporating more of the social sciences in order to understand human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. This entry collection features information about design and technology for improving environmental quality ...More
Extraction Techniques in Sample Preparation
Number of Entries: 23
Sample preparation is the most crucial step in the analytical procedure designed for implementation in any analytical application (food analysis, bionalysis, forensics, toxicology, environmental monitoring etc). It is the limiting factor in chemical analysis since it is time consuming and it can potentially introduce errors. No one can doubt that the best approach would be the direct introduction of the sample to the instrument; however, this is rarely feasible. Efficient sample pretre ...More
Gastrointestinal Disease
Number of Entries: 77
Gastrointestinal disease is a very common and frequently occurring disease, with a wide range of types and a total incidence of about 20% of the population. The cause of gastrointestinal disease is the imbalance between the protective mechanism and the injury mechanism of the human body. While traditional medicine kills harmful bacteria in the stomach, it also kills the beneficial bacteria necessary for the stomach. Although the symptoms are alleviated and inflammation is eliminated, t ...More
Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases
Number of Entries: 65
Hypertension is a major public health concern worldwide because of its rising prevalence and concomitant risks of cardiovascular diseases. Coping strategies may encompass a full spectrum of clinical, epidemiological, experimental, and technological factors to inspire front-line practices and shape critical thinking. This entry collection aims to assemble entries of wealthy topics related to clinical, therapeutic, and population sciences of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases that ...More
Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors
Number of Entries: 44
Immunotherapy has emerged as a major therapeutic modality in oncology. The number of immunotherapy drug approvals has been increasing, with numerous treatments in clinical and preclinical development. These therapeutics help the host immune system recognize cancer as foreign, promote the immune system, and relieve the inhibition that allows growth and spread of tumors.   Despite advancements in the treatment of hematological malignancies, solid tumors still represent a challenge ...More