Summary

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, and the disease now affects nearly every country and region. Caused by SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 continues nearly 18 months later to present significant challenges to health systems and public health in both hemispheres, as well as the economies of every country. The morbidity and mortality of the infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been significant, and various waves of disease outbreaks initially overwhelmed many hospitals and clinics and continue to do so in many countries. This influences everyone, and public health countermeasures have been dramatic in terms of their impact on employment, social systems, and mental health. This entry collection aims to gather diverse fields about COVID-19, including in epidemiology, public health, medicine, genetics, systems biology, informatics, data science, engineering, sociology, anthropology, nursing, environmental studies, statistics, and psychology.

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Entries
Topic Review
Statistical Analysis of Intensive Care Unit COVID-19 Data
COVID-19 caused a pandemic, due to its ease of transmission and high number of infections. The evolution of the pandemic and its consequences for the mortality and morbidity of populations, especially the elderly, generated several scientific studies and many research projects. Among them, researchers have the Predictive Models of COVID-19 Outcomes for Higher Risk Patients Towards a Precision Medicine (PREMO) research project. For such a project with many data records, it is necessary to provide a smooth graphical analysis to extract value from it.
  • 263
  • 10 Apr 2024
Topic Review
COVID-19 Pandemic on Changes in Consumer Purchasing Behavior
The coronavirus has wreaked havoc on the global economy before the eyes of the entire world. Due to evolving consumer needs and expectations during the pandemic, the supply and demand for various goods and services varied from the pre-COVID-19 period.
  • 72
  • 01 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Acute Myocardial Infarction during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was a global pandemic with high mortality and morbidity that led to an increased health burden all over the world. Although the virus mostly affects the pulmonary tract, cardiovascular implications are often observed among COVID-19 patients and are predictive of poor outcomes. Increased values of myocardial biomarkers such as troponin I or NT-proBNP were proven to be risk factors for respiratory failure. Although the risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) was greater in the acute phase of COVID-19, there were lower rates of hospitalization for ACSs, due to patients’ hesitation in presenting at the hospital. Hospitalized ACSs patients with COVID-19 infection had a prolonged symptom-to-first-medical-contact time, and longer door-to-balloon time. The mechanisms of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients are still not entirely clear; however, the most frequently implicated factors include the downregulation of ACE2 receptors, endothelial dysfunction, pro-coagulant status, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. 
  • 94
  • 05 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Pathway in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
COVID-19 is a global health threat caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. As a central player in the immune and inflammatory responses, modulating NF-κB activation could offer a strategic avenue for managing SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • 82
  • 28 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Use of COVID-19 Boosters among Health Care Providers
While the World Health Organization (WHO) has de-escalated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a global health emergency, ongoing discussions persist as new viral variants. 
  • 103
  • 27 Feb 2024
Topic Review
COVID-19 and Hypothalamic–Pituitary Diseases
Long COVID-19, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, is a condition where individuals who have recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 continue to experience a range of symptoms for weeks or even months afterward. While it was initially thought to primarily affect the respiratory system, it has become clear that Long COVID-19 can involve various organs and systems, including the endocrine system, which includes the pituitary gland. In the context of Long COVID-19, there is a growing understanding of the potential implications for the pituitary gland. The virus can directly affect the pituitary gland, leading to abnormalities in hormone production and regulation.
  • 197
  • 27 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Buildings’ Sustainability after COVID-19
The concept of sustainability, or sustainable development, was introduced in 1987 through the UN Brundtland Report, in which it is defined as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". The link between COVID-19 and sustainability is made up of a variety of psycho-sociological and perceptual aspects, such as the fact that the occupancy pattern of buildings is one of the determining factors in assessing the energy performance and sustainability of buildings.
  • 118
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Pulmonary Involvement in Long COVID
COVID-19 was responsible for the latest pandemic, shaking and reshaping healthcare systems worldwide. Its late clinical manifestations make it linger in medical memory as a debilitating illness over extended periods. Long COVID is a complicated and multidimensional illness that affects a large proportion of those recovering from an acute COVID-19 infection. It has been linked to a variety of symptoms and problems, including chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, respiratory troubles, cardiovascular irregularities, and psychological discomfort.
  • 112
  • 31 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Protein Quality Control Systems in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
SARS-CoV-2’s structure and mechanism of infection have been well characterized. The virus comprises a lipid envelope studded with spike (S) proteins. These spikes facilitate viral entry into host cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the cell surface. Following attachment, the virus enters the cell by endocytosis. Its genetic material consists of a single-stranded RNA molecule, which encodes structural proteins, non-structural proteins (NSP), and accessory proteins. Once inside, the viral RNA is translated into proteins, including those for replication and the formation of new virus particles.
  • 116
  • 24 Jan 2024
Topic Review
SARS-CoV-2 and Oral Inflammatory Diseases
The oral cavity is a niche for diverse microbes, including viruses. Members of the Herpesviridae family, comprised of dsDNA viruses, as well as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an ssRNA virus, are among the most prevalent viruses infecting the oral cavity, and they exhibit clinical manifestations unique to oral tissues. Herpesviruses and SARS-CoV-2 are individually associated with oral inflammatory diseases, particularly periodontitis, peri-implantitis, and endodontic disease.
  • 258
  • 15 Jan 2024
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