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HandWiki. 105×617mm. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32721 (accessed on 21 June 2024).
HandWiki. 105×617mm. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32721. Accessed June 21, 2024.
HandWiki. "105×617mm" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32721 (accessed June 21, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 03). 105×617mm. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32721
HandWiki. "105×617mm." Encyclopedia. Web. 03 November, 2022.
105×617mm
Edit

The 105×617mm (4.1 inch) also known as 105 × 617 R is a common, NATO-standard, tank gun cartridge used in 105mm guns such as those derived from the Royal Ordnance L7. The 105 × 617 R cartridge was originally developed from the 84 mm (3.3 in) calibre Ordnance QF 20-pounder 84 × 618R cartridge as part of the development of the L7 105 mm rifled gun.

105617mm tank 105mm

1. 105 Mm Ammunition

1.1. Armour-Piercing Discarding Sabot (APDS)

 
Designation Origin Year Penetrator material Propellant type & weight Chamber pressure Muzzle velocity Velocity drop Sub-projectile weight without sabot / with sabot Perforation at normal and oblique incidences Notes
L22[1] UK 1950s Tungsten carbide              
L28A1 UK 1959 Tungsten carbide (core) and Tungsten alloy cap 5.598 kg of NQ/M 044 3100 MPa 1478 m/s 93 m/s (at 1000 m) 185 m/s (at 2000 m) 4.1 kg / 5.84 kg 120 mm @ 60° at 914 m[2] Produced under licence by Germany as DM13, used in the Swedish Army as 60 mm Slpprj m/61 and in the Swiss Army as 10,5 Pz Kan 60/61 Pz Ke G Lsp.
L36A1 / M392 UK 1959 Tungsten carbide (core) and tungsten alloy cap 5.598 kg of NQ/M 044 3100 MPa 1478 m/s 93 m/s (at 1000 m) 185 m/s (at 2000 m) 4.1 kg / 5.84 kg 120 mm @ 60° at 914 m[3] British dsignation of the M392 APDS manufactured in the UK for the US Army, it features a safer primer. Quickly replaced in US service by M392A1
M392A1 / M392A2 USA 1960 / 1964 Tungsten carbide (core) and tungsten alloy cap 5.598 kg of NQ/M 044   1478 m/s 91 m/s (at 1000 m) 181 m/s (at 2000 m) 4.04 kg / NA 127 mm @ 60° at 4609 ft/s or ~820 m[4] US Manufactured version of L36A1/M392. Manufactured to tighter tolerances for improved accuracy, and to correct an issue of in barrel breakup. M392A2 incorporates the anti-friction ring from L28A1B1.
Slpprj m/62 Sweden 1962 Tungsten carbide (core) 5.9 kg NK1096 3100 MPa 1450 m/s   4.5 kg / 6.32 kg 200 mm @ 30° at 1500 m, 140 mm @ 55° at 700 m[5] Swedish-developed APDS round with a 57 mm sub-caliber projectile
L52 UK 1965 or 1966
1968 (L52A2)
Tungsten alloy (core) and Tungsten alloy (tilt cap) 5.598 kg of NQ/M 047
5.6 kg of NQ/M12 (L52A3)[6]
3100 MPa 1427 m/s 80 m/s (at 1000 m) 158 m/s (at 2000 m) 4.65 kg / 6.48 kg 120 mm @ 60° at 1830 m[7] The L52 introduced an anti-ricochet tilt cap. Produced under licence by US as M728 and used in the Swedish Army as 61 mm Slpprj m/66

1.2. Armour-Piercing Fin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot (APFSDS)

There are different ways to measure penetration value. NATO uses the 50% (This means that 50% of the shell had to go through the plate), while the Soviet/Russian standard is higher (80% had to go through). According to authorities like Paul Lakowski, the difference in performance can reach as much as 8%[8]

 
Designation Origin Designer & producer Year Penetrator material / Mass Propellant type & weight Chamber pressure Muzzle velocity Velocity drop Sub-projectile weight without sabot / with sabot Perforation at normal and oblique incidences Notes
M735 USA Teledyne Firth Stirling 1976 Tungsten alloy X11 (core) / 2.16 kg with Maraging Steel Jacket 5.67 kg of M30   1501 m/s 67 m/s (at 1000 m) 133 m/s (at 2000 m) 3.72 kg / 5.797 kg NATO Heavy Single target at 2930 m (1307 m/s) First serial production APFSDS of the United States. Developed from the 152mm XM578E1 projectile, with increased core length and mass, as well as projectile body length. XM735E2 Standardized as M735 around 1976.
M735A1 USA Primex Technologies 1979 Depleted Uranium alloy (core) / 2.18 kg with Maraging Steel Jacket 5.67 kg of M30   1501 m/s     ≈370 mm at 0° at 1000 m[6] A further modification of M735, using a Depleted Uranium Core instead of the Tungsten Alloy core. Never fielded by the U.S. military.
M774 USA Primex Technologies 1980[9] Depleted Uranium alloy / 3.4 kg     1509 m/s 67 m/s (at 1000 m) 134 m/s (at 2000 m) 3.61 kg / 5.78 kg Estimated to be 185 mm RHA at 60° at 2000 m (370 mm LoS) First production Monobloc penetrator used by US military Tank fleets.
M833 USA Primex Technologies 1983 Depleted Uranium alloy 5.8 kg of M30   1494 m/s 54 m/s (at 1000 m) 107 m/s (at 2000 m) / 6.192 kg 420 mm LoS at 60° at 2000 m[10] Second production monobloc round for the 105mm M68 Gun produced by the US, featured an increased length to diameter ratio.
M900A1 USA Primex Technologies 1991 Depleted Uranium alloy M43 LOVA   1505 m/s   / 6.86 kg 570 mm at 2000 m [11] Compared to the cancelled XM900 prototype, the M900A1 uses a new sabot, penetrator, and propellant. Designed for the M68A1 and M68A1E4 guns.
FP105 USA General Defense Corporation 1980s tungsten alloy 6.1 kg of M30 or NQ-M044 410 MPa[12] 1485 m/s with NQ/M propellant
1510 m/s with M30 propellant
  3.6 kg / 5.8 kg NATO Heavy Single target in excess of 4000 m and NATO Heavy triple target at 65° obliquity in excess of 6000 m Similar design to the M774, also known as C-76 or C-76A1 in Canada
C127 USA Olin Ordnance Ammunition 1991[13] tungsten alloy     1560 m/s   3.44 kg /    
CMC 105 USA Chamberlain Manufacturing Corporation early 1990s tungsten alloy 6.1 kg of M30 415 MPa 1501 m/s   3.56 kg / 5.8 kg NATO Heavy Single target at 4000 m and Heavy Triple at 5700 m or 178 mm at 67° obliquity at range about 2600 m[14] The latest private venture 105 mm APFSDS-T to be developed by the Chamberlain Manufacturing Corporation.
M111 Hetz-6 Israel IMI 1978 tungsten alloy 5.8 kg of M30 M 420 MPa
436 MPa (max)
1455 m/s 48 m/s (at 1000 m) 4.2 kg / 6.3 kg NATO Heavy Single target at 2000 m or 150 mm at 60° obliquity at 2000 m[15] or NATO Single Heavy at 4200 m Produced under licence by Diehl in Germany and in Switzerland. Known as DM23 in the Bundeswehr, Pfeil Pat Lsp in the Swiss Army and 33 mm Slpprj m/80 in the Swedish Army. Also produced by China, designated DTW1-105.
M413 Hetz-7 Israel IMI 1980s tungsten alloy 5.8 kg   1450 m/s or 1455 m/s 52 m/s (at 1000 m) / 6.3 kg NATO Heavy Single target at 6000 m Produced under licence by Diehl in Germany as DM33, also known as CL260
CL3108 Israel IMI c. 1987 tungsten alloy           Exhibited relatively equal performance to the M833[16] Also known as FS Mk. 2 Improved or M429
M426 Israel IMI   tungsten alloy 6 kg of M26 440 MPa (nominal) 1433 m/s   / 6.6 kg 470 mm at 2000 m Produced under licence by Diehl in Germany as DM63, also used by the Swedish Army (Slpprj m/90C) and Canada (C127)
M428 SWORD Israel IMI 2003 tungsten alloy 5.8 kg of NC-NG   1505 m/s        
OFL 105 F1 France GIAT 1981 18 density tungsten alloy 5.85 kg of B19T   1495 m/s[17]   3.8 kg / 5.8 kg NATO Heavy Single target at 4400 m[18] and 392 mm at point-blank range, 370 mm at 1000 m,[19][20] Fitted with small bearing balls inside its hollow ballistic cap for improved beyond-armour effects.
OFL 105 G2 France GIAT c. 1987 tungsten-nickel-iron alloy 5.85 kg of Wimmis   1490 m/s[21] 138 m/s (at 2000 m) 4.2 kg / 6.2 kg NATO Heavy Single target at 6200 m[22][23] and 487 mm at point-blank range The OFL 105 G2 uses a high energetic Swiss-made Wimmis double base propellant
OFL 105 G3 France GIAT c. 1987 tungsten-nickel-iron alloy 5.85 kg of B19T   1460 m/s[24]   4.2 kg / 6.2 kg NATO Heavy Single target at 5600 m[25][26] and 469 mm at point-blank range cheaper variant (15%) of the OFL 105 G2 employing the standard SNPE poudre B propellant
OFL 105 F2 France Giat Industries 1995 depleted uranium     1525 m/s[27]   / 6.25 kg 520 mm[28] or 540 mm at 2000 m OFL 105 G2 variant with a DU penetrator
L64A4 UK Royal Ordnance Factories 1982 (L64A64) tungsten alloy 5.62 kg of WNC LM1900 511 MPa (max) 1485 m/s   3.8 kg / 6.12 kg NATO Heavy Single target at 4200 m  
H6/62 UK Royal Ordnance Factories 1987[29] tungsten-nickel-iron alloy 5.62 kg of LM1900 511 MPa (max)
426 MPa (nominal)
1490 m/s   3.6 kg / 6.1 kg NATO Heavy Single target at 6000 m  
DM43 Germany Rheinmetall late 1980s or early 1990s tungsten alloy   420 MPa 1475 m/s[30]   4.3 kg / 6.1 kg or 6.3 kg    
NP105A2 Austria Ennstaler Metallwerk and Noricum early 1980s tungsten-nickel-iron T176FA alloy     1485 m/s   3.7 kg / NATO Heavy Triple target at 6500 m and 473 mm at 1000 m[31]  
C-437 Spain Empresa Nacional Bazán and Santa Bárbara Sistemas 1984 tungsten alloy 5.85 kg of B19T   1485 m/s   / 5.65 kg NATO Heavy Triple target and the Heavy Single target, both at 5000 m[32] On impact with the target a series of three DENAL wads or cylinders under the windshield and around the penetrator core is compressed. This prepares the penetration zone and prevents rebound from armour at high angles of incidence Part of the kinetic energy in the core raises the temperature of the impact zone to soften the material, producing a number of particles behind the armour. The penetration hole is between 60 and 70 mm in diameter.
C-512 Spain Santa Bárbara Sistemas   tungsten alloy 5.7 kg of B19T 345 MPa 1480 m/s   / 5.925 kg NATO Heavy Triple target at 4550 m and 120 mm target at 70° at 3500 m[33] the C-512 is similar to the C-437 but use a slightly longer and heavier penetrator
M1050 Belgium MECAR late 1980s tungsten alloy     1510 m/s   / 5.8 kg   is equivalent in performance to the FP105 APFSDS
M1060 Belgium MECAR early 1990s tungsten alloy     1510 m/s   / 5.8 kg   has a comparable performance to the US M833 but without the problems associated with depleted uranium
M1060A2 Belgium MECAR mid-late 1990s tungsten alloy 5.9 kg   1460 m/s[34]   / 6.2 kg 440 mm RHA at 60° at 2000 m"105mm TK APFSDS-T M1060A2". 2018. https://www.nexter-group.fr/sites/default/files/2020-05/20180604%20Nexter%20-%20Catalogue%20Ammunition.pdf.  (LoS penetration) This model of KE is a major product improvement of the MECAR M1060A1 APFSDS-T.
M1060A3 Belgium MECAR 2004 tungsten alloy 6.2 kg of JA2   1560 m/s[35][36]   / 6.2 kg 500 mm RHA at 60° at 2000 m[37][38] (LoS penetration)  
XC127 Excalibur UK Primex Technologies, Giat Industries and RO Defence. 1990s tungsten alloy X27X             Exhibits similar penetration performance to the first generation of 120 mm APFSDS rounds.[39]
Type 93 Japan Daikin 1993 tungsten alloy 6.2 kg   1501 m/s   3.4 kg / 5.8 kg 440 mm at 2000 m
M9718 South Africa Denel   tungsten alloy   350 to 400 MPa       450 mm at 3000 m[40]  
K270 South Korea Poongsan Metal Corporation 1980s tungsten alloy     1508 m/s 52 m/s   157.5 mm at 60° obliquity at 2000 m  
K274 South Korea Poongsan Metal Corporation 1998 tungsten alloy M30   1495 m/s   / 6.23 kg 225 mm at 60° obliquity at 2000 m  
K274N South Korea Poongsan Metal Corporation   tungsten alloy     1610 m/s [41]     250 mm at 60° obliquity at 2000 m  
APFS DS 105mm Pakistan National Development Complex (NDC) 2001 depleted uranium     1450 m/s     more than 450 mm at unknown range[42]  
P1A1 Pakistan Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF)   tungsten alloy 5.62 kg of NQM046 434 MPa 1490 m/s   / 6.12 kg 300 mm at 0° obliquity at unknown range[43]  
DTW2 China NORINCO 2000s or 2010s tungsten alloy 5.9 kg of SD16 + SD16A 511 MPa (max) 1530 m/s   3.775 kg / 6 kg 150 mm at 71° obliquity at 2000 m [44] Penetrator Length is about 545mm
BTA2 China NORINCO 2012 tungsten alloy 5.8 kg   1540 m/s 40m/s per 1km / 5.9 kg 590 mm at 2000 m [45] Penetrator Length is 640mm -- https://i.ibb.co/P1g6fVr/unknown.jpg
Anti tank 105 mm APFSDS – T Iran Defense Industries Organization (DIO) 2010s tungsten alloy         / 5.3 kg 460 mm at unknown range[46]  

1.3. High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT)

 
Designation Origin Designer & producer Year Type Weight, complete round (kg) Projectile weight (kg) Explosive filling (kg) Muzzle velocity (m/s) Perforation at normal and oblique incidences Notes
OCC 105 F1 France   early 1960s non-rotating 22.2 kg 10.95 kg 0.78 kg of HBX 1000 m/s 400 mm or 152 mm @ 64° at any range[47]  
M456 HEAT-T[48] USA   1961 (M456)
1966 (M456A1)
1980 (M456A2)
fin-stabilized 21.8 kg 10.2 kg 0.97 kg of Composition B 1173.5 m/s 375 mm or 175 mm @ 60° at any range On detonation, viable anti-personnel fragments are scattered over a radius of at least 15 m.[6]
The M456A2 differs mainly in having a different method of fixing the nose impact switch assembly so that the warhead will detonate on graze or shoulder impact on any part of the projectile body.
Produced under license by Japan as Type 91 HEAT-MP and by Germany as DM12.
M152/6 Israel   2000s fin-stabilized           M152/3 (licence-built M456) upgraded with an airburst fuze
  Germany DEFTEC 1992 fin-stabilized 22 kg 10 kg 1.4 kg or 1.5 kg 1174 m/s   Visually similar to the US M456 round but includes a detonation wave shaper for increased armour penetration. Also has a greater fragmentation effect.
L51 HEAT-T Italy Simmel Difesa   fin-stabilized 22.1 kg 10.25 kg 0.97 kg of Composition B 1173 m/s superior than the standard M456A1 model  
CH-105-MZ HEAT-T Spain Santa Bárbara Sistemas   fin-stabilized 22 kg 10.3 kg 1.25 kg of HWC 94.5/4.5/1 1173 m/s 443 mm of RHA at any range  
DTP1A China NORINCO 2012 fin-stabilized 22 kg     1154 m/s   visually similar to the US M456 projectile but incorporates an anti-ERA feature

1.4. High-Explosive Squash Head (HESH)

High-Explosive Squash Head (HESH) / High explosive plastic (HEP)[49]
Designation Origin Year Weight, complete round Projectile weight Explosive filling Muzzle velocity Notes
L35 HESH UK 1962 (L35A2) 20.02 kg 11.35 kg 5.1 kg[6] of Composition A-3 (L35A1)
1.97 kg of Hexogen
732 m/s used by the Swedish army as Spgr m/61
M393 HEP-T USA 1965 (M393A1) 21.2 kg 11.3 kg 2.86 kg of Composition A-3 (M393A1)
2.994 kg of Composition A-3 (M393A2)
731.5 m/s Produced under license by Japan as Type75 HEP-T and by Germany as DM502
M156 HESH-T (HEP-T) Israel   21.2 kg 11.3 kg 2.2 kg of Composition A-3 731 m/s Equivalent to the L35 HESH-T and M393A1/A2 HEP-T

1.5. High Explosive (HE)

Designation Origin Year Weight, complete round Projectile mass Explosive filling Muzzle velocity Notes
OE 105 F1 France 1960 21 kg
(46 lb)
12.1 kg 2 kg of RDX/TNT 770 m/s Has been referred as the OC 105 or OE Modèle 60 in the past.
Slsgr m/61 A Sweden   24.37 kg 14.4 kg 1.83 kg of Trotyl 650 m/s  
10,5 Pz Kan 60/61 St G Mz 54 Lsp Switzerland            
M110 HE-MP-T Israel   23.5 kg 13.6 kg ≈1 kg of CLX66 800 m/s Capable of penetrating double reinforced concrete walls >200mm,[50] its electronic fuze has three modes
M9210 HE South Africa   24.5 kg   TNT/HNS 700 m/s 17m lethal radius, maximum range 10–12 km[51]

1.6. Smoke Shells

 
Designation Origin Year Weight, complete round Projectile mass Muzzle velocity Filling Notes
L39A SMK UK 1961 or 1962 26.47 kg 19.6 kg 330 m/s 3.3 kg of hexachloroethane and zinc oxide Used by the Swedish army as Rökgr m/61
M416 WP-T USA 1960s 20.7 kg
(45 lb 10 oz)
11.4 kg
(25 lb 2 oz)
732 m/s 2.72 kg of white phosphorus  
OFUM PH 105 F1 France 1960s 18.5 kg
(40 lb 13 oz)
12.1 kg
(26 lb 11 oz)
695 m/s 1.77 kg of white phosphorus + 0.12 kg hexolite burster charge 75 m-wide smoke screen for 40 seconds

1.7. Anti-Personnel

 
Designation Origin Year Type Weight, complete round Projectile mass Muzzle velocity Filling Notes
L15A1 CAN UK   canister          
M1204 Belgium   canister 19.5 kg
(43 lb 0 oz)
8.3 kg 1,173 m/s
(3,850 ft/s)
1130 steel spheres of a diameter of 11 mm 200 m
(660 ft) effective range
M494 APERS-T USA 1967 beehive 24.94 kg
(55 lb 0 oz)
14 kg
(30 lb 14 oz)
821 m/s 5000 steel flechettes  
M1040 USA   canister 23.9 kg
(52 lb 11 oz)
  1,041 m/s
(3,420 ft/s)
2080 tungsten spheres[52] 300 m
(980 ft) effective range
TC800 Australia early 1990s canister         cone-shaped dispersion within a 10° angle out to a maximum range of 300 m[53]
APAM-MP-T M117/1 Israel 2000s cluster       6 submunitions
M436 STUN Israel 2000s less-than-lethal 14.4 kg
(31 lb 12 oz)
2.5 kg
(5 lb 8 oz)
  plastic flakes Flash, bang and blast effects. "less-than-lethal" cartridge[54]

1.8. Illuminating

 
Designation Origin Year Weight, complete round Projectile mass Muzzle velocity Filling Effect Notes
OECL 105 F1 France late 1960s 20.5 kg 11.5 kg or 11.7 kg 0.46 kg of illuminant 275 m/s Illuminates 300 m diameter area with more than 5 lux and a 900 m diameter area with more than 1 lux for 35 seconds.  
DM16 Germany   22.7 kg 16 kg   280 m/s    

1.9. Gun launched Anti-Tank Guided Missile (GLATGM)

 
Ammunition Origin Designer & producer Year Weight, complete round Missile mass Muzzle velocity Cruise speed Range Warhead Perforation at normal and oblique incidences Guidance system Notes
FALARICK 105 Belgium CMI Defence and Luch Design Bureau 2010s 24 kg     subsonic 5000 m tandem HEAT >550 mm semi-automatic laser beam-riding  
LAHAT Israel Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) 1990s 16 kg 13 kg 300 m/s 280 m/s 6000 m (direct fire) 2.5 kg tandem HEAT   semi-active laser guided  

2. 105 Mm Guns Using 105x617mm Ammunition

  • Gun, 105 mm, Tank, L7-series (United Kingdom)
  • M68-series (USA)
  • EX 35 (USA)
  • CN 105 F1 (France)
  • CN 105 G2 (France)
  • Rh 105-series (Germany)
  • OTO 105 Low Recoil Force Gun (Italy)
  • 10,5 cm Pz Kan 61 (Switzerland)
  • 105HP (Belgium)
  • GT 3 (South Africa)
  • GT 7 (South Africa)
  • GT 8 (South Africa)
  • FRT L51 (Argentina)
  • Type 94 (China)

References

  1. Ogorkiewicz, Richard M (1991). Technology of Tanks. United Kingdom: Jane's Information Group Limited. pp. 424. ISBN 0-7106-0595-1. 
  2. Ogorkiewicz, Richard M. (1991). Technology of Tanks (Vols 1-2). London: Janes Information Group. pp. 79. ISBN 978-0710605955. 
  3. Ogorkiewicz, Richard M. (1991). Technology of Tanks (Vols 1-2). London: Janes Information Group. pp. 79. ISBN 978-0710605955. 
  4. "AD317307 Evaluation of Preproduction Shot, APDS, 105mm, M392A1 for M68 Gun". Aberdeen Proving Ground. 1960. https://archive.org/details/DTIC_AD0317307. 
  5. "Armor penetration of Swedish tank and anti-tank weapons". http://tanks.mod16.org/2015/09/25/armor-penetration-of-swedish-tank-and-anti-tank-weapons/. 
  6. "Jane's Online Browsing". Jane's. http://68.57.235.185/Murdercube/files/Ammunition/Jane%27s%20Ammunition%20Handbook.pdf. 
  7. Ogorkiewicz, Richard M. (1991). Technology of Tanks (Vols 1-2). London: Janes Information Group. pp. 79. ISBN 978-0710605955. 
  8. Pokonać pancerz! Część III – dane amunicji APFSDS-T (in Polish) http://dziennikzbrojny.pl/artykuly/art,5,19,9828,wojska-ladowe,czolgi,pokonac-pancerz-czesc-iii-dane-amunicji-apfsds-t
  9. TM 43-0001-28. Technical Manual Army Ammunition Data Sheets for Artillery Ammunition. Washington, DC: Headquarters Department of the Army. 1994. pp. 2–103. 
  10. Jacobson, Michael R (March–April 1990). "Antiarmor: What you don't know may kill you". Infantry 80 (2): 39. https://www.benning.army.mil/infantry/magazine/issues/1990/MAR-APR/pdfs/MAR-APR1990.pdf. 
  11. Estimated according to the Lanz-Odermatt equation vs 260BHN. The Round: https://bulletpicker.com/images/clip1530.png / The L-O Calculation: https://i.ibb.co/68PvXtx/5-FE1964-B-1013-4-BEF-8-EDB-1022-E0-D79-E2-B.jpg / Assuming the velocity drop is 55m/s per 1km
  12. "105mm C76A1 KE". https://www.gd-ots.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/105mm-C76A1.pdf. 
  13. Foss, Christopher (1993). Jane's Armoured Fighting Vehicle Retrofit Systems 1993-94. London: Jane's Information Group. pp. 147. ISBN 978-0710610799. 
  14. Foss, Christopher (1993). Jane's Armoured Fighting Vehicle Retrofit Systems 1993-94. London: Jane's Information Group. pp. 150. ISBN 978-0710610799. 
  15. Foss, Christopher (1993). Jane's Armoured Fighting Vehicle Retrofit Systems 1993-94. London: ane's Information Group. pp. 104. ISBN 978-0710610799. 
  16. Department of Defense Appropriations for 1990. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1989. pp. 243. 
  17. 1525 m when fired from the longer French F1 105 mm L/56 gun
  18. 4900 m when fired from the longer French F1 105 mm L/56 gun
  19. Ogorkiewicz, Richard M. (1991). Technology of Tanks (Vols 1-2). London: Janes Information Group. pp. 82. ISBN 978-0710605955. 
  20. Barrel length not specified.
  21. 1525 m when fired from the longer French F1 105 mm L/56 gun
  22. 6800 m when fired from the longer French F1 105 mm L/56 gun
  23. (in en) International Defense Review 9/1987. Jane's Publishing Group. 1987. p. 1245. 
  24. 1490 m when fired from the longer French F1 105 mm L/56 gun
  25. 6200 m when fired from the longer French F1 105 mm L/56 gun
  26. (in en) International Defense Review 9/1987. Jane's Publishing Group. 1987. p. 1245. 
  27. when fired from the longer French F1 105 mm L/56 gun
  28. "IHSJane'sWeaponsAmmunition". http://cdn.ihs.com/Janes/Sample-content-IHS-Janes-Weapons-Ammunition.pdf. 
  29. "Eye to Increasing Export Share". Forecast International. https://docplayer.net/49383414-Tank-gun-ammunition-europe.html. 
  30. Foss, Christopher (1993). Jane's Armoured Fighting Vehicle Retrofit Systems 1993-94. London: ane's Information Group. pp. 98. ISBN 978-0710610799. 
  31. Ogorkiewicz, Richard M. (1991). Technology of Tanks (Vols 1-2). London: Janes Information Group. pp. 82. ISBN 978-0710605955. 
  32. Foss, Christopher (1993). Jane's Armoured Fighting Vehicle Retrofit Systems 1993-94. London: ane's Information Group. pp. 123. ISBN 978-0710610799. 
  33. IHS Jane's Weapons: Ammunition 2012-2013. Janes Information Group. February 2012. ISBN 978-0710630223. 
  34. 1490 m when fired from the longer French F1 105 mm L/56 gun
  35. 1590 m/s when fired from the longer French F1 105 mm L/56 gun
  36. 1620 m/s when fired from the longer Belgian CV 105HP 105 mm L/58 gun
  37. 560 mm RHA at 2000 m when fired from the longer Belgian CV 105HP 105 mm L/58 gun
  38. "105 mm Tank Ammunition". 2019. http://www.mecar.be/content.php?langue=english&cle_menus=1156856627. 
  39. "105mm Excalibur Introduced". Forecast International. https://docplayer.net/49383414-Tank-gun-ammunition-europe.html. 
  40. "R96.8m for Olifant, Rooikat ammo" (in en-ZA). defenceWeb. 18 August 2011. https://www.defenceweb.co.za/land/land-land/r968m-for-olifant-rooikat-ammo/. 
  41. Estimated using L-O formula to determine muzzle velocity to achieve 500mm of penetration at 2000m - https://i.ibb.co/pWNZztL/Bam-GH-1.jpg
  42. "Pakistan joins DU producer nations". Jane's International Defence Review. http://www.janes.com/defence/land_forces/news/idr/idr010509_1_n.shtml. 
  43. "Tank & Anti-Tank Ammunition". Pakistan Ordnance Factories. https://dokumen.tips/documents/tank-anti-tank-ammunition-stabilized-round-and-can-be-fired-from-105mm-l7.html. 
  44. Estimated to be 478mm @ 2000m according to the Lanz-Odermatt equation vs 260BHN Steel, 50% Criteria
  45. Estimated according to the Lanz-Odermatt equation vs 260BHN Steel, 50% Criteria
  46. "SECTION 2 AMMUNITION & METALLURGY I N D U S T R I E S G R O U P". DIO DEFENSE INDUSTRIES ORGANIZATION. https://pdfslide.net/documents/dio-defence-industries-organisation-ammunition-catalogue-iran.html. 
  47. (in en) International Defense Review 1/1972. Interavia SA. 1987. p. 162. 
  48. T refers to the round containing a tracer element.
  49. "High Explosive Plastic" is the US term for HESH.
  50. "Elbit Systems Land Portfolio". https://elbitsystems.com/media/Catalog-Tanks_15_Web.pdf. 
  51. "R96.8m for Olifant, Rooikat ammo" (in en-ZA). defenceWeb. 18 August 2011. https://www.defenceweb.co.za/land/land-land/r968m-for-olifant-rooikat-ammo/. 
  52. "M1040 Canister". https://jpeoaa.army.mil/mas/Products/resources/MASHandbook_2021.pdf. 
  53. Foss, Christopher (1993). Jane's Armoured Fighting Vehicle Retrofit Systems 1993-94. London: Jane's Information Group. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-0710610799. 
  54. "Elbit Systems Land Portfolio". https://elbitsystems.com/media/Catalog-Tanks_15_Web.pdf. 
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