Topic Review
End-of-Life Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries and Circular Economy
Electric vehicles, which are primarily powered by lithium-ion batteries, have gained much attention as the future of transportation for their environmental and economic benefits. However, the economy of lithium-ion battery management is quite linear. A circular economy with reusing and end-of-life recycling of lithium-ion batteries, would reduce the social and environmental costs associated with the mining of metals, decelerate the depletion of natural resources, and prevent the improper management that often accompanies disposal.
  • 29
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Wastewater Treatment Technologies
Freshwater is in limited supply, and the growing population further contributes to its scarcity. The effective treatment of wastewater is essential now more than ever, because waterborne infections significantly contribute to global deaths, and millions of people are deprived of safe drinking water. The wastewater treatment technologies include preliminary, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments, which are effective in removing several contaminants.
  • 26
  • 30 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Integrated Design Process for Building Climate Responsiveness
Increasingly prominent energy and environmental problems have pushed for higher requirements for buildings’ energy saving. According to the conventional energy-saving design method, the cooperative operation between architects, structural and equipment engineers and other professionals cannot run smoothly, so the energy-saving and emission reduction efficiency of the whole building cannot be improved effectively. The integrated design process (IDP) is a systematic method, which is applied in the scheme design stage and according to which the multi-level design factors of cities and buildings are considered comprehensively. It provides a concrete path of multi-specialty collaborative operation for the building’s climate responsive design.
  • 9
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence in the Effective Battery Life Cycle
The rapid growth of battery production and usage will cause waste and disposal-related issues as these batteries reach end-of-life. Moreover, it also causes the depletion of natural mineral resources. Thus, effective battery reuse and recycling procedures are highly important because they contain metals of critical importance. The recycling of batteries causes the return of valuable materials, including lead, lithium, nickel, cadmium, and copper, back to the value chain, partially easing the need to extract new resources. Moreover, recovering metals from batteries reduces the burden on landfills, the burden on the environment, and the negative impact on human health. The critical material’s recirculation also leads to a reduction of the ecological CO2 footprint, which is connected with battery cell production and may provide CO2-neutral battery cell production. Improper battery waste disposal causes harmful effects on human and animal health, as well as the environment, as they contain a huge number of heavy metals. These waste compounds contaminate water, soil, and vegetation.
  • 125
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Constructed Wetlands as a Sustainable Sanitation Solution
The application of nature-based solutions (NBSs) in treating wastewater are treatment wetlands or constructed wetlands (CW). CWs are natural treatment technologies that efficiently treat many different types of wastewater (domestic wastewater, agricultural wastewater, coal drainage wastewater, petroleum refinery wastewater, compost and landfill leachates, fish-pond discharges, industrial wastewater from pulp and paper mills, textile mills, seafood processing). CWs can effectively treat raw wastewater to different levels of treatments and can be used as a primary, secondary, or tertiary treatment. CWs are engineered systems designed to optimize and copy processes found in natural environments thus they are considered as sustainable, environmentally friendly options for wastewater treatment. CWs have low operational and maintenance requirements and have a stable performance with less vulnerability to inflow variation. CWs have proved their ability to treat several types of wastewaters. Several benefits and facts, such as the low construction and operational costs of CWs, low-energy, and less operational requirements, have raised the interests in CWs as a treatment technology. The sustainability of CWs as a sanitation solution (technical, financial, environmental sustainability) is described with a focus on integrating climate change resilience and a circular economic approach to the technical and financial sustainability.
  • 71
  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Solid Waste Management in Middle East Arab Countries
Solid waste production, specifically construction waste, in Middle Eastern Arab countries has dramatically increased. This is characterized by several factors, including rapid urbanization, common food wasting habits, diverse culture, lack of proper planning of solid waste processes, insufficient equipment, as well as lack of proper funding. The exponential growth in solid waste generation rates has led to hazards to health and the environment, causing issues related to air and water pollution under the already increasing pressure of climate change.
  • 60
  • 17 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Desalination in Mexico
Since the sixteenth century, water desalination systems have been developed. Mexico is a country that faces a severe water shortage, mainly due to its territorial extension, because the concentration of water resources is located in the southern zone of the country, while the main industrial activity is carried out in the north (which presents scarcity conditions). The distance and the technical limitations of transporting water between the northern and southern zones make water desalination the main tool to combat water stress in Mexico.
  • 26
  • 16 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Low-GWP Refrigerants (Pure and Blended)
Low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants for the next-generation air conditioning systems have been investigated with target domestic applications. High-GWP refrigerants are mostly used in climate control applications such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration systems. 
  • 36
  • 15 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Degree of Ambition and Renewable Energy in Shipping
The early strategy outlines various degrees of desire for the international shipping industry, stressing that technical advancement and the international introduction of alternative fuels and/or renewable energies for international shipping will be crucial to achieving the overall aim. Renewable energy can be implemented in shipping in one of two ways: (1) as retrofits for current fleets or (2) as part of new vessel designs. In terms of new ship concepts, most renewable energy technology will deliver electricity for auxiliary and additional uses, regardless of ship size.
  • 69
  • 14 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Online Pipeline Characterisation on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
Nowadays, more frequently, it is necessary to perform underwater operations such as surveying an area or inspecting and intervening on industrial infrastructures such as offshore oil and gas rigs or pipeline networks. The use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) has grown as a way to automate these tasks, reducing risks and execution time. One of the used sensing modalities is vision, providing RGB high-quality information in the mid to low range, making it appropriate for manipulation or detail inspection tasks. This research presents the use of a deep neural network to perform pixel-wise 3D segmentation of pipes and valves on underwater point clouds generated using a stereo pair of cameras. In addition, two novel algorithms are built to extract information from the detected instances, providing pipe vectors, gripping points, the position of structural elements such as elbows or connections, and valve type and orientation. The neural network and information algorithms are implemented on an AUV and executed in real-time, validating that the output information stream frame rate of 0.72 fps is high enough to perform manipulation tasks and to ensure full seabed coverage during inspection tasks. The used dataset, along with a trained model and the information algorithms, are provided to the scientific community.
  • 36
  • 11 Nov 2022
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