Topic Review
Wood Ash Based Treatment of Anaerobic Digestate
The anaerobic digestion (AD) was first applied to deal with the sewage sludge (SS) produced during the primary and secondary treatment of wastewater, but its use to deal with agro-waste and the MSW with around 70% of organic material has been subsequently encouraged.
  • 169
  • 21 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Wind Turbine Icing Modelling Approaches
In this entry, a comprehensive review of wind turbine icing modelling is presented. The commonly applied approaches and the recent advances have been reported based on a systematic and concise literature review. The paper presents a panorama of the current modelling and simulation studies dealing with different aspects of ice accretion on wind turbines.
  • 235
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Wetland-Microbial Fuel Cell Systems
Water, energy, and food are indispensable for sustainable economic development. Despite nutrients, especially phosphorus and nitrogen, being essential for plant growth and thus food supplies, those present in wastewater are considered an environmental burden. While microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are receiving much interest, combining wastewater treatment with an MFC has emerged as an option for low-cost wastewater treatment. Among others, a constructed wetland (CW) coupled with an MFC (CW-MFC) has the potential to provide a low carbon footprint and low-energy wastewater treatment, as well as nutrient and energy recovery from wastewater. The organic and nutrient removal and power generation by the integrated CW-MFC systems are affected by a number of factors including the organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, system design, plant species, dissolved oxygen, substrate/media type, influent feeding mode, electrode materials and spacing, and external resistance. 
  • 85
  • 14 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Weather Radar
The history of Weather Radar (abbreviation of RAdio Detecting And Ranging) begins during World War II, when military radar operators noticed extraneous echoes showing up on their display. David Atlas was one of the pioneers of radar meteorology, along with John Stewart Marshall, Walter Palmer and Richard Doviak. Weather radars send pulses of electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere, a microsecond of long microwave radiation to identify the presence of hydrometeors.
  • 357
  • 17 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Water–Energy–Food Nexus for Agro-Industrial Companies
The water–energy–food (WEF) nexus approach is gaining attention due to the challenge of better managing natural elements. Agro-industrial companies, given their environmental impacts, need to take sustainability into proper account. One important sustainability management concept used nowadays is the so-called water–energy–food (WEF) nexus. It means that the aforementioned elements are intrinsically managed together, and one action in one direction can affect both of the others. As a result, these three issues should be considered in an integrated manner because they are connected, and their utilization may expose important tradeoffs.
  • 78
  • 26 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Water Treatment Residues and Methanogenic Activity in Wastewater-Sludge
The effect of adding alum water treatment residues (WTR) on the methanogenic activity in the digestion of primary domestic wastewater sludge was evaluated through laboratory experiments in sedimentation columns, using total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations from 0.37 to 1.23 g/L. The addition of WTR to primary clarifiers can benefit its effluent water quality in terms of colour, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and TSS. However, the presence of WTR can negatively influence the production of methane gas during organic sludge digestion in primary clarifiers, for concentrations of TSS between 14.43 and 25.23 g/L and of VSS between 10.2 and 11.85 g/L. The activity of the Methanothrix sp., curved bacilli, methanococci, and Methanosarcina sp. decreases considerably after 16 days of anaerobic digestion, and methane production seems to only be associated with fluorescent methanogenic bacilli.
  • 211
  • 17 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Water Quality Assessment
Various human activities have been the main causes of surface water pollution. The uneven distribution of industrial enterprises in the territories of the main river basins of Ukraine do not always allow the real state of the water quality to be assessed.
  • 122
  • 23 May 2022
Topic Review
Wastewater Treatment Technologies
Freshwater is in limited supply, and the growing population further contributes to its scarcity. The effective treatment of wastewater is essential now more than ever, because waterborne infections significantly contribute to global deaths, and millions of people are deprived of safe drinking water. The wastewater treatment technologies include preliminary, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments, which are effective in removing several contaminants.
  • 26
  • 30 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Waste Treatment Using Black Soldier Fly
Poor waste management has adverse impacts on the environment and human health. The recent years have seen increasing interest in using black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens, as an organic waste converter. Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) feed voraciously on various types of organic waste, including food wastes, agro-industrial by-products, and chicken and dairy manure, and reduce the initial weight of the organic waste by about 50% in a shorter period than conventional composting. The main components of the BSFL system are the larvero, where the larvae feed and grow, and the fly house, where the adults BSF live and reproduce.
  • 841
  • 28 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Waste Plastic Thermal Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis is one of the most popular thermo-chemical treatment (TCT) methods known today. This is due to their immense impacts on the environment and their operational output. The significant role of pyrolysis with waste plastics as feedstock is trending. Most of these waste plastics which include high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS), have continued to render our environment, our health and oceans in deplorable conditions. This entry presents an assurance into the current findings of waste plastic thermal pyrolysis (WPTP) and revealed some common research gaps and misconceptions surrounding this field. 
  • 508
  • 04 Mar 2022
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