Topic Review
Plastic Mismanagement in Africa
Plastic waste pollution is one of the main items on international agendas. It leads to more and more leakages and constitutes a dangerous threat to living beings and the ecosystem (toxic substances). Globally, only 9% of plastic waste is recycled, while 22% of it is mismanaged. A large part of this waste ends up legally or illegally in Africa.
  • 39
  • 22 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Bio-Based Polyurethane Elastomers
Elastomers, a category of polymers characterized by high elasticity and viscoelasticity, possess the ability to revert to their initial form after undergoing stretching or deformation and are known for their outstanding resistance to abrasion, tearing, and impact.
  • 65
  • 16 Jan 2024
Topic Review
E-Polymers
E-polymers, also known as conducting polymers, are a class of materials that exhibit both electrical conductivity and the mechanical properties of polymers. The use of e-polymer materials in daily life is becoming increasingly widespread, especially in the field of biology. Since the manufacturing cost of e-polymer implants is relatively low and e-polymers also react, causing different chemical molecules to attach to the surface of the implant, they are more compatible with the surrounding environment of the body. Some e-polymers are biodegradable in the body. If used for temporary implants, the advantage of these polymers is that they can gradually degrade in the body after performing their functions, thereby reducing the possibility of any long-term complications. Polymers and their composite materials can be designed to have inherent tensile properties while maintaining their high performance, making them favorable candidates for the next generation of skin-inspired electronic materials.
  • 211
  • 16 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Polyvinyl Chloride in the Environment
Plastics have recently become an indispensable part of everyone’s daily life due to their versatility, durability, light weight, and low production costs. The increasing production and use of plastics poses great environmental problems due to their incomplete utilization, a very long period of biodegradation, and a negative impact on living organisms. Decomposing plastics lead to the formation of microplastics, which accumulate in the environment and living organisms, becoming part of the food chain. The contamination of soils and water with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) seriously threatens ecosystems around the world. Their durability and low weight make microplastic particles easily transported through water or air, ending up in the soil.
  • 192
  • 12 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Molecular Weight of Polyamides
Polyamides (PAs) undergo local environmental degradation, leading to a decline in their mechanical properties over time. PAs can experience various forms of degradation, such as thermal degradation, oxidation, hydrothermal oxidation, UV oxidation, and hydrolysis. In order to better comprehend the degradation process of PAs, it is crucial to understand each of these degradation mechanisms individually.
  • 73
  • 09 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Remediation of Textile-Dye-Containing Wastewater
Water makes up most of the Earth, although just 0.3% is usable for people and animals. The huge oceans, icecaps, and other non-potable water resources make up the remaining 99.7%. Water quality has declined due to pollution from population growth, industry, unplanned urbanization, and poor water management. The textile industry has significant global importance, although it also stands as a major contributor to wastewater generation, leading to water depletion and ecotoxicity. This issue arises from the extensive utilization of harmful chemicals, notably dyes.
  • 79
  • 09 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Water in Epoxy Coatings
The absorption of water strongly affects the exploitation characteristics of epoxy coatings and their lifecycles. The models used for describing water absorption to a polymer matrix involve many parameters that can adequately describe the process with parameter tuning. However, when using multiple variable parameters, the physical essence of absorption can be obscured. Hence, one of the promising directions in this field is the development of new models with fixed physically transparent parameters, which will adequately describe the water uptake process in epoxy resins.
  • 62
  • 04 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Heterogeneous Catalysts Based on Hypercrosslinked Polystyreneand
Platform chemicals, also known as chemical building blocks, are substances that serve as starting materials for the synthesis of various value-added products, which find a wide range of applications. These chemicals are the key ingredients for many fine and specialty chemicals. Most of the transformations of platform chemicals are catalytic processes, which should meet the requirements of sustainable chemistry: to be not toxic for humans, to be safe for the environment, and to allow multiple reuses of catalytic materials. Hypercrosslinked polymers are already widely applied in industry as excellent (ad)sorbents. Their use for the synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts is a relatively new but dynamically developing area. A new class of heterogeneous catalysts based on nanoparticles of catalytically active metals stabilized in a polymer matrix of hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HPS) are provided, their synthesis, properties, and application to produce several platform chemicals from renewable raw materials. Some transformations of platform chemicals into compounds with high added value are addressed and multiple perspectives are discussed.
  • 60
  • 03 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Disentangled Polymers and Composites
Macromolecule entanglements are common in polymers. The chains of macromolecules with carbon skeletons are flexible. The isolated chain easily takes the shape of a coil. When a macromolecule is surrounded by other macromolecules, its coils interpenetrate, and entanglements arise between these macromolecules. The condition of their occurrence is that their molecular weight exceeds a certain limit. The entanglements may be topological (these are common) or cohesive. Entanglement with another macromolecule limits the movement of the macromolecule's chain, so it is an obstacle to this movement.
  • 185
  • 29 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Flavonoids as Visible Light Photoinitiators
The design of biosourced and/or bioinspired photoinitiators is an active research field as it offers a unique opportunity to develop photoinitiating systems exhibiting better biocompatibility as well as reduced toxicity. In this field, flavonoids can be found in numerous fruits and vegetables so these structures can be of interest for developing, in the future, polymerization processes, offering a reduced environmental impact but also better biocompatibility of the polymers.
  • 72
  • 29 Dec 2023
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