Topic Review
Membrane Fabrication Using Recycled Waste
Polymeric membranes are generally manufactured using a variety of monomers/polymers, including polystyrene, polysulfone (PSF), polyether sulfone (PES), polyaniline, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and others. The industrial manufacturing of these chemical compounds causes significant greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the application of these monomer/polymer compounds in daily necessities has been posing a massive burden for their post-utilization disposal. The emergence of waste and its recycling potential has attracted attention to its application in membrane fabrication. The utilization of recycled waste for fabricating the membranes can help in reducing the environmental impact by 2× amount (i.e., eliminate the use of polymer for membrane fabrication and its associated environmental impact and mitigating the effect of waste on the environment via its utilization), thus helping in maintaining environmental sustainability.
  • 303
  • 19 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Solid-State Modification for Thermoplastic Polymers
Solid-state modification of post-synthetic thermoplastic polymers is a rapidly evolving technique with numerous advantages and potential applications. This approach is particularly attractive because it allows adding new functionalities to existing polymer matrices, thereby extending their utility or assigning new purposes.
  • 85
  • 19 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Advances in Conducting Polymers for Healthcare Monitoring
Conducting polymers (CPs) are an innovative class of materials recognized for their high flexibility and biocompatibility, making them an ideal choice for health monitoring applications that require flexibility. They are active in their design. Advances in fabrication technology allow the incorporation of CPs at various levels, by combining diverse CPs monomers with metal particles, 2D materials, carbon nanomaterials, and copolymers through the process of polymerization and mixing. This method produces materials with unique physicochemical properties and is highly customizable. In particular, the development of CPs with expanded surface area and high conductivity has significantly improved the performance of the sensors, providing high sensitivity and flexibility and expanding the range of available options. However, due to the morphological diversity of new materials and thus the variety of characteristics that can be synthesized by combining CPs and other types of functionalities, choosing the right combination for a sensor application is difficult but becomes important. 
  • 82
  • 07 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Classification and Application of Natural Polymers
Natural polysaccharides are some of the most extensively used biopolymers in food, pharmaceutical, and medical applications, because they are renewable and have a high level of biocompatibility and biodegradability. The fundamental understanding required to properly exploit polysaccharides potential in the biocomposite, nanoconjugate, and pharmaceutical industries depends on detailed research of these molecules. Polysaccharides are preferred over other polymers because of their biocompatibility, bioactivity, homogeneity, and bioadhesive properties. Natural polysaccharides have also been discovered to have excellent rheological and biomucoadhesive properties, which may be used to design and create a variety of useful and cost-effective drug delivery systems. Polysaccharide-based composites derived from natural sources have been widely exploited due to their multifunctional properties, particularly in drug delivery systems and biomedical applications. These materials have achieved global attention and are in great demand because to their biochemical properties, which mimic both human and animal cells. 
  • 153
  • 07 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Aliphatic Polyesters by ADMET Polymerization and Hydrogenation
The recent developments of the synthesis of bio-based long-chain aliphatic polyesters by the acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization of α,ω-dienes, derived from plant oils and bio-based chemicals, like bis(10-undecenoate) with isosorbide, using ruthenium-carbene catalysts. The development of subsequent (one-pot) tandem hydrogenation produced saturated polyesters under mild conditions.
  • 93
  • 06 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Membrane-Based Direct Air Capture Application
Direct air capture (DAC) is an emerging negative CO2 emission technology that aims to introduce a feasible method for CO2 capture from the atmosphere. Unlike carbon capture from point sources, which deals with flue gas at high CO2 concentrations, carbon capture directly from the atmosphere has proved difficult due to the low CO2 concentration in ambient air. Current DAC technologies mainly consider sorbent-based systems; however, membrane technology can be considered a promising DAC approach since it provides several advantages, e.g., lower energy and operational costs, less environmental footprint, and more potential for small-scale ubiquitous installations. Several recent advancements in validating the feasibility of highly permeable gas separation membrane fabrication and system design show that membrane-based direct air capture (m-DAC) could be a complementary approach to sorbent-based DAC, e.g., as part of a hybrid system design that incorporates other DAC technologies (e.g., solvent or sorbent-based DAC). 
  • 65
  • 05 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Optimized Polymeric Membranes for Water Treatment
Conventional polymers, endowed with specific functionalities, are extensively utilized for filtering and extracting a diverse set of chemicals, notably metals, from solutions. The main structure of a polymer is an integral part for designing an efficient separating system. However, its chemical functionality further contributes to the selectivity, fabrication process, and resulting product morphology. One example would be a membrane that can be employed to selectively remove a targeted metal ion or chemical from a solution, leaving behind the useful components of the solution. Such membranes or products are highly sought after for purifying polluted water contaminated with toxic and heavy metals. An efficient water-purifying membrane must fulfill several requirements, including a specific morphology attained by the material with a specific chemical functionality and facile fabrication for integration into a purifying module Therefore, the selection of an appropriate polymer and its functionalization become crucial and determining steps.
  • 97
  • 23 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Aerogels for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions
Aerogel is a general term referring to novel nanostructured materials characterized by very high porosity and tunable physicochemical properties that are obtained following a sol–gel process and an appropriate drying method. Such novel materials are entering the market in everyday products and a wide portfolio of properties usable for applications in health care, foods, agriculture, energy, and environmental remediation. Bio-based aerogels obtained from renewable resources and biomass are biodegradable and biocompatible due to the natural origin of the polymers, and for this reason, they greatly contribute to the sustainable concept of the bio-economy, offering promising commodities for environmental remediation.
  • 96
  • 22 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Plastic Mismanagement in Africa
Plastic waste pollution is one of the main items on international agendas. It leads to more and more leakages and constitutes a dangerous threat to living beings and the ecosystem (toxic substances). Globally, only 9% of plastic waste is recycled, while 22% of it is mismanaged. A large part of this waste ends up legally or illegally in Africa.
  • 74
  • 22 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Bio-Based Polyurethane Elastomers
Elastomers, a category of polymers characterized by high elasticity and viscoelasticity, possess the ability to revert to their initial form after undergoing stretching or deformation and are known for their outstanding resistance to abrasion, tearing, and impact.
  • 132
  • 16 Jan 2024
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