Topic Review
The Rheological Phase Reaction Method
The term “rheology” stands for the study of a material’s flow behavior under applied deformation forces or stress. The Rheological Phase Reaction (RPR) method is considered a “pollution-less method” to prepare any metal oxides with high crystallinity, phase purity, and fewer agglomerations depending on the proper raw materials and the right temperature conditions are being chosen. 
  • 26
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Sensing Surfaces for Capacitive Biodetection
Affinity-based biosensors operate by specifically capturing a biological target with biological or synthetic capture agents such as aptamers, DNAzymes, single stranded DNAs or antibodies. Despite their high sensitivity and their suitability for miniaturization, biosensors are still limited for clinical applications due to the lack of reproducibility and specificity of their detection performance. The design and preparation of sensing surfaces are suspected to be a cause of these limitations.
  • 22
  • 18 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Steel for Nuclear Pressure Vessels
The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is an important component of a nuclear power plant. It has been used in harsh environments such as high temperature, high pressure, neutron irradiation, thermal aging, corrosion and fatigue for a long time, which puts forward higher standards for the performance requirements for nuclear pressure vessel steel.
  • 139
  • 22 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Principal Uses of Carbons from Glycerol
Biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of animal fats and vegetable oils, producing a large amount of glycerol as a by-product. The crude glycerol cannot be used in the food or pharmaceutical industries. It is crucial to transform glycerol into value-added products with applications in different areas to biodiesel be economically viable. One of the possible applications is its use as a precursor for the synthesis of carbon materials. The glycerol-based carbon materials have distinct properties due to the presence of sulfonic acid groups on the material surface, making them efficient catalysts. Additionally, the glycerol-based activated carbon materials show promising results concerning the adsorption of gases and liquid pollutants and recently as capacitors.
  • 86
  • 20 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Natural Disordered sp2 Carbon
The progress in the practical use of glassy carbon materials has led to a considerable interest in understanding the nature of their physical properties. The electrophysical properties are among the most demanded properties. In nature, in the course of geological processes, disordered sp2 carbon substances were formed, the structure of which is in many respects similar to the structure of glassy carbon and black carbon, and the electrical properties are distinguished by a high-energy storage potential and a high efficiency of shielding electromagnetic radiation.
  • 43
  • 18 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Defect-Related Etch Pits on Crystals and Their Utilization
Etch pits could form on an exposed surface of a crystal when the crystal is exposed to an etching environment or chemicals. Due to different dissolution rates along various crystalline directions in a crystal, the dissolution process is anisotropic; hence, etch pits usually have a regular shape. The morphology, size, and density of etch pits can be affected by various factors, including the chemical composition of the etchant, etching time, etching temperature, status of the matrix, and so on. Traditionally, etch pits are utilized to evaluate the dislocation density and some defect-related properties. Now, in the modern fabrication industries, the relationship between etch pits and defects has been utilized more skillfully. High-quality crystals can be fabricated by controlling dislocations revealed by etch pits. Meanwhile, with the as-revealed dislocation as the diffusion path of atoms, new crystals will emerge in corresponding etch pits.
  • 112
  • 11 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Binary Chalcogenides and Their Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Activities
Chalcogenides are essential in the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen fuel due to their narrow band gap energy. H2 is a clean fuel, and its usage can address many of the issues caused by using fossil fuels. It is widely used as a feedstock in the chemical industry to produce ammonia, methanol, and various fuels like diesel, gasoline, etc. It is also used as a transport fuel. It has several other applications in the production of metals and agricultural industries. A cost-effective and long-lasting chalcogenide-based photocatalysts can make the H2 generating process more economical and suitable. The use of binary chalcogenides and their modifications (compounds consisting of only one chalcogen and one electropositive atom) for photocatalytic water splitting will be discussed in the following subsections.
  • 91
  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Radiopaque Crystalline, Non-Crystalline and Nanostructured Bioceramics
Radiopacity is sometimes an essential characteristic of biomaterials that can help clinicians perform follow-ups during pre- and post-interventional radiological imaging. Due to their chemical composition and structure, most bioceramics are inherently radiopaque but can still be doped/mixed with radiopacifiers to increase their visualization during or after medical procedures. The radiopacifiers are frequently heavy elements of the periodic table, such as Bi, Zr, Sr, Ba, Ta, Zn, Y, etc., or their relevant compounds that can confer enhanced radiopacity. Radiopaque bioceramics are also intriguing additives for biopolymers and hybrids, which are extensively researched and developed nowadays for various biomedical setups. 
  • 84
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Manipulating Nucleation Potency of Substrates by Interfacial Segregation
During solidification of metallic materials, heterogeneous nucleation occurs on substrates, either endogenous or exogenous. The potency of the substrates for nucleation is mainly dependent upon the atomic arrangements on the substrate surface, which are affected by the lattice misfit between the substrate and the nucleated solid, the surface roughness at atomic scale, and the chemical interaction between the substrates and the melt. Extensive examinations on metal/substrate (M/S) interfaces at atomic scale by the state-of-the-art aberration (Cs) corrected STEM and associated EDS and EELS have shown that alloying elements in liquid melts tend to segregate at the interfaces, leading to the formation of various 2-dimensional compounds (2DCs) or 2-dimensional solutions (2DSs), depending upon segregation behavior of the elements. For instance, Al3Ti 2DC and Ti2Zr 2DC at the Al/TiB2 interface, Y2O3 2DC at the Mg/MgO interface, and a Si-rich 2DS layer at Al-Si/TiB2 interface have been identified. Such interfacial segregations significantly affect nucleation potency of the substrates, resulting in either promoting or impeding the heterogeneous nucleation process during solidification.
  • 78
  • 21 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Hard Carbons as Anodes in Sodium-Ion Batteries
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are regarded as promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in the field of energy, especially in large-scale energy storage systems. Tremendous effort has been put into the electrode research of SIBs, and hard carbon (HC) stands out among the anode materials due to its advantages in cost, resource, industrial processes, and safety. However, different from the application of graphite in LIBs, HC, as a disordered carbon material, leaves more to be completely comprehended about its sodium storage mechanism, and there is still plenty of room for improvement in its capacity, rate performance and cycling performance.
  • 149
  • 21 Oct 2022
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