Topic Review
Wearable Sensing Systems
Wearable devices are powerful tools for supporting IoT systems because of their sensing, processing, and communication capability. The term wearable devices cover a wide range of products integrated into clothing and accessories worn by the user and constantly connected to other intelligent electronic systems and the Internet network, allowing the detection, storage, and exchange of data in real-time and without human intervention. Particularly, they allow detection of patients’ vital parameters (e.g., heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation- (SpO2), body temperature, blood pressure (BP), etc.)
  • 228
  • 13 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Wearable Resistive Strain Sensors
As the demand for the real-time monitoring of human motion and physiological information has grown, miniature and intelligent wearable electronic devices have been rapidly developed. Nowadays, a variety of wearable electronic products, such as electronic skins, smart watches and sports wristbands, are becoming an indispensable part of our lives and changing our behavior patterns and lifestyles. Strain sensors are important components of wearable electronic devices, which register and transmit changes in human motion parameters and physical health indicators through electrical signal responses.
  • 141
  • 28 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Wearable Devices and Work Safety
Today, ensuring work safety is considered to be one of the top priorities for various industries. Workplace injuries, illnesses, and deaths often entail substantial production and financial losses, governmental checks, series of dismissals, and loss of reputation. Wearable devices are one of the technologies that flourished with the fourth industrial revolution or Industry 4.0, allowing employers to monitor and maintain safety at workplaces.
  • 263
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Washing Damage in E-Textiles
E-textiles, hybrid products that incorporate electronic functionality into textiles, often need to withstand washing procedures to ensure textile typical usability. Yet, the washability—which is essential for many e-textile applications like medical or sports due to hygiene requirements—is often still insufficient. The influence factors for washing damage in textile integrated electronics as well as common weak points are not extensively researched, which makes a targeted approach to improve washability in e-textiles difficult. 
  • 306
  • 25 May 2021
Topic Review
Walking Recognition in Mobile Devices
Presently, smartphones are used more and more for purposes that have nothing to do with phone calls or simple data transfers. One example is the recognition of human activity, which is relevant information for many applications in the domains of medical diagnosis, elderly assistance, indoor localization, and navigation. The information captured by the inertial sensors of the phone (accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer) can be analyzed to determine the activity performed by the person who is carrying the device, in particular in the activity of walking. Nevertheless, the development of a standalone application able to detect the walking activity starting only from the data provided by these inertial sensors is a complex task. This complexity lies in the hardware disparity, noise on data, and mostly the many movements that the smartphone can experience and which have nothing to do with the physical displacement of the owner. In this work, we explore and compare several approaches for identifying the walking activity. We categorize them into two main groups: the first one uses features extracted from the inertial data, whereas the second one analyzes the characteristic shape of the time series made up of the sensors readings. Due to the lack of public datasets of inertial data from smartphones for the recognition of human activity under no constraints, we collected data from 77 different people who were not connected to this research. Using this dataset, which we published online, we performed an extensive experimental validation and comparison of our proposals.
  • 477
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Vulnerabilities and Challenges in IoT-Enabled Smart Grids
Internet of Things (IoT) has appeared as one of the enabling technologies for smart energy grids by delivering abundant cutting-edge solutions in various domains, including critical infrastructures. As IoT-enabled devices continue to flourish, one of the major challenges is security issues, since IoT devices are connected through the Internet, thus making the smart grids vulnerable to a diverse range of cyberattacks. 
  • 65
  • 25 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Visually Impaired People
Blind and Visually impaired people (BVIP) face a range of practical difficulties when undertaking outdoor journeys as pedestrians. Over the past decade, a variety of assistive devices have been researched and developed to help BVIP navigate more safely and independently. In addition, research in overlapping domains are addressing the problem of automatic environment interpretation using computer vision and machine learning, particularly deep learning, approaches. Our aim in this article is to present a comprehensive review of research directly in, or relevant to, assistive outdoor navigation for BVIP. We breakdown the navigation area into a series of navigation phases and tasks. We then use this structure for our systematic review of research, analysing articles, methods, datasets and current limitations by task. We also provide an overview of commercial and non-commercial navigation applications targeted at BVIP. Our review contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a comprehensive, structured analysis of work in the domain, including the state of the art, and guidance on future directions. It will support both researchers and other stakeholders in the domain to establish an informed view of research progress. 
  • 194
  • 17 May 2021
Topic Review
Visual-SLAM Algorithms
The visual-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) techniques use one or more cameras in the sensor system, receiving 2D images as the source of information. In general, the visual-based SLAM algorithms are divided into three main threads: initialization, tracking, and mapping.
  • 1013
  • 23 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Visible Light Communication
Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology is an emerging technology using visible light modulation that, in the modern world, will mainly facilitate high-speed internet connectivity. VLC technology employs visible light for communication to facilitate high-speed internet connectivity exclusively in the indoor environment. This particular report will tell about some potential applications of VLC and the implementation of LEDs and some of the factors affecting the modulation bandwidth of LEDs for the VLC application.
  • 2251
  • 11 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Virtual Power Plants (VPPs)
A virtual power plants (VPPs) is an alternative for the management of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the electricity system, which operates based on the concept of the “virtual cloud”. Its specific role is visibility and the technical and commercial integration of DERs in the power system. It is capable of grouping and managing the technical potential of different DERs (microgrids included), regardless of the voltage level at which they are interconnected with the network and without a geographical restriction between the elements. It is modeled as a single virtual element associated with the distribution network to guarantee a safe, efficient, cooperative and complementary operation between its elements, both in commercial and technical aspects. The VPP has the capacity to participate in the electricity market as a manager of controllable loads and as a provider of energy, power reserve and ancillary services.
  • 598
  • 18 Feb 2022
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