Topic Review
Brain Barriers
Barriers between the brain and systemic circulation are dynamic and highly specialized to strictly regulate the access of a wide variety of molecules to the brain. These barriers allow for the delivery of nutrients and other molecules necessary for neuronal functioning, but often limit the permeation of xenobiotics, including drugs. In brain tumors, these barrier functions may be disrupted or altered. However, this disruption is often heterogeneous and not reliable to guaranteee the delivery of efficacious concentrations of antineoplastic agents to brain tumors.
  • 528
  • 11 Jan 2021
Topic Review
C-reactive protein (CRP) apheresis
Almost every kind of inflammation in the human body is accompanied by rising C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. This can include bacterial and viral infection, chronic inflammation and so-called sterile inflammation triggered by (internal) acute tissue injury. CRP is part of the ancient humoral immune response and secreted into the circulation by the liver upon respective stimuli. Its main immunological functions are the opsonization of biological particles (bacteria and dead or dying cells) for their clearance by macrophages and the activation of the classical complement pathway. This not only helps to eliminate pathogens and dead cells, which is very useful in any case, but unfortunately also to remove only slightly damaged or inactive human cells that may potentially regenerate with more CRP-free time. CRP action severely aggravates the extent of tissue damage during the acute phase response after an acute injury and therefore negatively affects clinical outcome. CRP is therefore a promising therapeutic target to rescue energy-deprived tissue either caused by ischemic injury (e.g., myocardial infarction and stroke) or by an overcompensating immune reaction occurring in acute inflammation (e.g., pancreatitis) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS; e.g., after transplantation or surgery). Selective CRP apheresis can remove circulating CRP safely and efficiently. We explain the pathophysiological reasoning behind therapeutic CRP apheresis and summarize the broad span of indications in which its application could be beneficial with a focus on ischemic stroke as well as the results of this therapeutic approach after myocardial infarction.
  • 528
  • 17 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Paroxysmal Movement Disorders
Paroxysmal movement disorders (PMDs) are rare neurological diseases typically manifesting with intermittent attacks of abnormal involuntary movements.
  • 525
  • 06 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Huntington’s Disease
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by pathogenic expansions of the triplet cytosine-adenosine-guanosine (CAG) within the Huntingtin gene. These expansions lead to a prolongation of the poly-glutamine stretch at the N-terminus of Huntingtin causing protein misfolding and aggregation. Huntingtin and its pathological variants are widely expressed, but the central nervous system is mainly a ected, as proved by the wide spectrum of neurological symptoms, including behavioral anomalies, cognitive decline and motor disorders. Other hallmarks of HD are loss of body weight and muscle atrophy. This review highlights some key elements that likely provide a major contribution to muscle atrophy, namely, alteration of the transcriptional processes, mitochondrial dysfunction, which is strictly correlated to loss of energy homeostasis, inflammation, apoptosis and defects in the processes responsible for the protein quality control. The improvement of muscular symptoms has proven to slow the disease progression and extend the life span of animal models of HD, underlining the importance of a deep comprehension of the molecular mechanisms driving deterioration of muscular tissue.
  • 514
  • 24 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse event of several first-line chemotherapeutic agents, including platinum compounds, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, thalidomide, and bortezomib, which negatively affects the quality of life and clinical outcome.
  • 511
  • 22 Feb 2021
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Limbic Encephalitis Associated with COVID-19
Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an inflammatory disease of the brain, in which lesion is anatomically limited in structures of the limbic system. In some cases, LE can start with symptoms of limbic dysfunction with further involvement of other regions of the brain. Classic LE syndrome includes such symptoms as the development of personality disorders, depression, sleep disorders, epileptic seizures, hallucinations and cognitive disorders (short-term and long-term memory impairment). The information of clinical examination, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid studies (CSF) suggest the diagnosis of LE in most patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
  • 451
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Brain
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the most frequent phakomatosis and one of the most common inherited tumor predisposition syndromes, is characterized by several manifestations that pervasively involve central and peripheral nervous system structures. 
  • 489
  • 20 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Role of Mitochondria in Neuroinflammation
Innate immune response is one of our primary defense against pathogens infection, although, if dysregulated, it represents the leading cause of chronic tissue inflammation. This dualism is even more present in the central nervous system, where neuroinflammation is both important for the activation of reparatory mechanisms and, at the same time, leads to the release of detrimental factors that induce neurons loss. Key players in modulating the neuroinflammatory response are mitochondria. They are responsible for a variety of cell mechanism that control tissue homeostasis, such as autophagy, apoptosis, energy production and also inflammation. Accordingly, it is widely recognized that mitochondria exert a pivotal role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, since the neurodegenerative process is highly based on neuroinflammation and tissue damage. Interestingly, it has been suggested that neuroinflammation, and thus mitochondria (dys)function, have a fundamental role in neurodegenerative diseases and also in acute brain damage, such in ischemic stroke and epileptic seizures.
  • 472
  • 07 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Neurodegenerative Proteinopathies
Neurodegenerative Proteinopathies, also known as protein conformational diseases or amyloidosis, are a group of diseases associated with the deposition of misaggregated proteins in the nervous system.
  • 457
  • 06 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Pro-Inflammatory Molecules
Pro-inflammatory molecules, such as cytokines and chemokines, are produced in the brain by resident cells, mainly by microglia and astrocytes. Brain infiltrating immune cells constitutes another source of these molecules, contributing to an impaired neurological synapse function, affecting typical neurobehavioral and cognitive performance. Currently, there is increasing evidence supporting the notion that behavioral alterations and cognitive impairment can be associated with respiratory viral infections, such as human respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and SARS-COV-2, which are responsible for endemic, epidemic, or pandemic outbreak mainly in the winter season.
  • 435
  • 02 Jun 2021
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