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Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is known in traditional medicine for its diuretic, choleretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Helichrysum arenarium (sandy everlasting) is a source of active pharmacological compounds used in complementary medicine to prevent digestive and hepatobiliary illnesses.
21 Oct 2022
The need for a more sustainable society has prompted the development of bio-based processes to produce fuels, chemicals, and materials in substitution for fossil-based ones. In this context, microorganisms have been employed to convert renewable carbon sources into various products. The methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii has been extensively used in the production of heterologous proteins. The obligate aerobic yeast Komagataella phaffii is a non-pathogenic certified and generally recognized as a safe (GRAS) microorganism. It is classified in the Saccharomycetales order and Saccharomycetaceae family.
10 Nov 2022
as a Promising Curative Tool against Cancer
Bacteria-mediated cancer therapy has become a topic of interest under the broad umbrella of oncotherapy. Among many bacterial species, Salmonella remains at the forefront due to its ability to localize and proliferate inside tumor microenvironments and often suppress tumor growth. Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most promising mediators, with engineering plasticity and cancer specificity. It can be used to deliver toxins that induce cell death in cancer cells specifically, and also as a cancer-specific instrument for immunotherapy by delivering tumor antigens and exposing the tumor environment to the host immune system.
02 Nov 2022
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE), also known as 2-phenethyl alcohol, is a higher aromatic alcohol characterized by one of the most popular and desired fragrances, which is the rosy scent.
13 Jan 2022
3D Bioprinted Vascularized Tumour
An in vitro screening system for anti-cancer drugs cannot exactly reflect the efficacy of drugs in vivo, without mimicking the tumour microenvironment (TME), which comprises cancer cells interacting with blood vessels and fibroblasts. Additionally, the tumour size should be controlled to obtain reliable and quantitative drug responses. Herein, we report a bioprinting method for recapitulating the TME with a controllable spheroid size. The TME was constructed by printing a blood vessel layer consisting of fibroblasts and endothelial cells in , alginate, and fibrinogen, followed by seeding multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTSs) of glioblastoma cells (U87 MG) onto the blood vessel layer. Under MCTSs, sprouts of blood vessels were generated and surrounding MCTSs thereby increasing the spheroid size. The combined treatment involving the anti-cancer drug temozolomide (TMZ) and the angiogenic inhibitor sunitinib was more effective than TMZ alone for MCTSs surrounded by blood vessels, which indicates the feasibility of the TME for in vitro testing of drug efficacy. These results suggest that the bioprinted vascularized tumour is highly useful for understanding tumour biology, as well as for in vitro drug testing.
29 Oct 2020
Action of Cardiac Glycosides
Cardiac glycosides are natural sterols and constitute a group of secondary metabolites isolated from plants and animals.
31 Aug 2021
Active Compounds from
Antrodia cinnamomea is a precious and popular edible and medicinal mushroom. It has attracted increasing attention due to its various and excellent bioactivities, such as hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antitumor, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, and gut microbiota regulation properties. To elucidate its bioactivities and develop novel functional foods or medicines, numerous studies have focused on the isolation and identification of the bioactive compounds of A. cinnamomea.
11 Oct 2022
Adjuvants for New Anti-Tuberculosis Vaccines
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that sits in the top 10 leading causes of death in the world today and is the current leading cause of death among infectious diseases. Although there is a licensed vaccine against TB, the Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine, it has several limitations, namely its high variability of efficacy in the population and low protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. New vaccines for TB are needed. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the development and implementation of new TB vaccines to be a priority. Subunit vaccines are promising candidates since they can overcome safety concerns and optimize antigen targeting. Nevertheless, these vaccines need adjuvants in their formulation in order to increase immunogenicity, decrease the needed antigen dose, ensure a targeted delivery and optimize the antigens delivery and interaction with the immune cells.
10 Feb 2021
Advanced Hydrogels as Wound Dressings
Skin is the largest organ of the human body, protecting it against the external environment. Despite high self-regeneration potential, severe skin defects will not heal spontaneously and need to be covered by skin substitutes. Tremendous progress has been made in the field of skin tissue engineering, in recent years, to develop new skin substitutes. Among them, hydrogels are one of the candidates with most potential to mimic the native skin microenvironment, due to their porous and hydrated molecular structure. They can be applied as a permanent or temporary dressing for different wounds to support the regeneration and healing of the injured epidermis, dermis, or both. Based on the material used for their fabrication, hydrogels can be subdivided into two main groups—natural and synthetic. Moreover, hydrogels can be reinforced by incorporating nanoparticles to obtain “in situ” hybrid hydrogels, showing superior properties and tailored functionality. In addition, different sensors can be embedded in hydrogel wound dressings to provide real-time information about the wound environment. This review focuses on the most recent developments in the field of hydrogel-based skin substitutes for skin replacement. In particular, we discuss the synthesis, fabrication, and biomedical application of novel “smart” hydrogels.
31 Aug 2020
Advances in COVID-19 Treatment
COVID-19, which emerged in December 2019, was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. The disease was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has caused millions of deaths worldwide and caused social and economic disruption. While clinical trials on therapeutic drugs are going on in an Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) public–private partnership collaboration, current therapeutic approaches and options to counter COVID-19 remain few. Therapeutic drugs include the FDA-approved antiviral drugs, Remdesivir, and an immune modulator, Baricitinib. Hence, therapeutic approaches and alternatives for COVID-19 treatment need to be broadened.
02 Nov 2022
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of Piezoelectrics
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