Topic Review
“Brick-and-Mortar” Composites Made of 2D Carbon Nanoparticles
Among all biomimetic materials, nacre has drawn great attention from the scientific community, thanks to superior levels of strength and toughness and its brick-and-mortar (B&M) architecture. However, achieving the desired performances is challenging since the mechanical response of the material is influenced by many factors, such as the filler content, the matrix molecular mobility and the compatibility between the two phases. Most importantly, the properties of a macroscopic bulk material strongly depend on the interaction at atomic levels and on their synergetic effect. In particular, the formation of highly-ordered brick-and-mortar structures depends on the interaction forces between the two phases. Consequently, poor mechanical performances of the material are associated with interface issues and low stress transfer from the matrix to the nanoparticles. Therefore, improvement of the interface at the chemical level enhances the mechanical response of the material. 
  • 145
  • 27 Apr 2022
Topic Review
(−)-Methyl-Oleocanthal, a New Oleocanthal Metabolite
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses of (−)-methyl-oleocanthal (met-OLE), a new metabolite of the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenolic oleocanthal (OLE), were explored in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine peritoneal macrophages. Possible signaling pathways and epigenetic modulation of histones were studied. Met-OLE inhibited LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrite (NO) production and decreased the overexpression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes COX-2, mPGES-1 and iNOS in murine macrophages.
  • 214
  • 13 Jan 2022
Topic Review
[18F]Difluoromethyl Heteroaryl-Sulfones
The suitability of the 18F radioisotope in positron emission tomography (PET) demanded novel approaches for 18F-fluorination and 18F-fluoroalkylation. The difluoromethyl (CF2H) group has gained increasing attention in medicinal chemistry due to its lipophilic hydrogen-bond donor properties. In non-radioactive chemistry, difluoromethyl heteroaryl-sulfones has been extensively used in difluoromethylation of substrates bearing C=C, C≡C, and C≡N bonds by visible light photoredox catalysis. Herein, we highlight our recent work on the synthesis of [18F]difluoromethyl heteroaryl-sulfones with improved molar activities and their application in photoinduced C-H 18F-difluoromethylation of N-containing heteroarenes via a radical-mediated pathway.
  • 711
  • 25 Aug 2021
Topic Review
{001} Faceted Anatase TiO2-Based Composites
For anatase TiO2, the {001} crystal facets are the most reactive because they exhibit unique surface characteristics such as visible light responsiveness, dissociative adsorption, efficient charge separation capabilities and photocatalytic selectivity. In this review, a concise survey of the literature in the field of {001} dominated anatase TiO2 crystals and their composites is presented. Even though the design and morphologically controlled synthesis of TiO2-001 is considered to be a hot spot in scientific research, it still has some drawbacks like its wide band gap and high recombination rate. These drawbacks can easily be overcome by coupling them with other materials to form TiO2-001-based composites. This review focusses on the synthesis, properties and applications of TiO2-001-based composites. 
  • 226
  • 12 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Dehydrogenases involved in Reduction of CO2 to CH3OH
The three dehydrogenase enzymes involved in the CO2 to methanol conversion are: Formate dehydrogenase, Formaldehyde dehydrogenase and Alcohol dehydrogenase.
  • 75
  • 26 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Leucoagaricus gongylophorus and Leaf-Cutting Ants
Leaf-cutting ants are eusocial insects, as they show a highly developed social structure, manifesting ecological relationships. Their complex structure is characterized by an organized social behavior, the cultivation of a fungus garden and high levels of hygiene, which hinders the management of leaf-cutting ants compared to other insects. Leaf-cutting ants cause damage in agricultural and silviculture areas, mainly in monocultures.
  • 110
  • 21 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Polypodiopsida and Nanotechnology
The species belonging to the Polypodiopsida class have been part of human culture since the beginning of civilization, often being utilized due to the presence of antimicrobial substances (such as alkaloids, terpenes as tannins, saponins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, etc.). Application of the ferns in nanotechnology is presented with practical examples.
  • 70
  • 21 Sep 2022
Topic Review
1D MOS Nanostructures
1D electrospun MOS are basically nanofibers, nanotubes or nanowires, which are made of one or more semiconductor metal oxides or with other dopant material. Polymer/MOS precursor nanofibers that are formed in the electrospinning process are calcined until the polymer is removed and pristine MOS nanostructure is obtained.
  • 171
  • 10 Dec 2021
Topic Review
1D MPC and Thin-Film Analysis
The development of magnetic photonic crystals (MPC) has been a rapidly evolving research area since the late 1990s. Magneto-optic (MO) materials and the techniques for their characterization have also continually undergone functional and property-related improvements. MPC Optimization is a feature-rich Windows software application designed to enable researchers to analyse the optical and magneto-optical spectral properties of multilayers containing gyrotropic constituents. A set of computational approaches, and a custom software package have been described, designed to enable the design and optimization of 1D magnetic photonic crystals in terms of the achievable combinations of Faraday rotation, transmission, and reflection spectra. 
  • 571
  • 25 Aug 2021
Topic Review
2-Oxocarboxylic Acids
Atmospheric organic aerosols play a major role in climate, demanding a better understanding of their formation mechanisms by contributing multiphase chemical reactions with the participation of water. The sunlight driven aqueous photochemistry of small 2-oxocarboxylic acids is a potential major source of organic aerosol, which prompted the investigations into the mechanisms of glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid photochemistry reviewed here. While 2-oxocarboxylic acids can be contained or directly created in the particles, the majorities of these abundant and available molecules are in the gas phase and must first undergo the surface uptake process to react in, and on the surface, of aqueous particles.
  • 358
  • 21 Feb 2022
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