Topic Review
Hypertension, Anxiety and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Increased anxiety in these conditions may be linked to a high-salt diet through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, which increases blood pressure while releasing catecholamines, causing a “fight or flight” response. A rostral shift of fluid overload from the lower to the upper body occurs in obstructive sleep apnea associated with COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease, and may be related to sodium and fluid retention triggered by hypertonic dehydration. Chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system responds to salt-induced dehydration by increasing reabsorption of sodium and fluid, potentially exacerbating fluid overload. Anxiety may also be related to angiotensin II that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system to release catecholamines. 
  • 143
  • 14 Mar 2024
Topic Review
SIDS, Pulmonary Edema, and Sodium Toxicity
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) occurs unexpectedly in an otherwise healthy infant with no identifiable cause of death following a thorough investigation. A general hypervolemic state has been identified in SIDS, and fluid in the lungs suggests the involvement of pulmonary edema and hypoxia as the cause of death.
  • 452
  • 14 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Salt in Low Back Pain and Comorbid Conditions
Low back pain is the world’s leading disability, but the etiology of the majority of low back pain is non-specific with no known cause. Moreover, overuse of opioids to treat low back pain is a widespread problem. Many global populations consume excess sodium chloride, which can lead to fluid overload in hypervolemia, and cause swelling and temporary weight gain associated with low back pain. Numerous conditions comorbid with low back pain are also potentially mediated by excessive salt intake, including migraine headache, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, venous thromboembolism, liver disease, respiratory disorders, chronic kidney disease, pregnancy complications, and multiple sclerosis.
  • 262
  • 14 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Mucociliary Clearance and SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) within the ciliated epithelium of the nasal tract can be stimulated to a higher frequency and provide increased protection against transient exposure to airway irritants. Smokers as well as non-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke were found to have higher CBFs. However, with extended exposure to irritants, persistent upregulated CBF can damage and remodel the epithelial layer with fewer protective cilia. Additionally, mucociliary clearance (MCC), the innate defense mechanism of the respiratory system, traps particles and pathogens within the mucous layer of the epithelium and propels them out of the airways through ciliary activity. However, this mechanism becomes defective as disease progresses, increasing susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. 
  • 221
  • 14 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Sodium Chloride, Migraine and Salt Withdrawal
Salt (sodium chloride) meets the criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence, including withdrawal in which the substance is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms. The premonitory symptoms of migraine include food cravings for salty foods, which can alleviate migraine pain. Edema, possibly related to large amounts of salt consumed in binge eating, can cause approximately four pounds of retained fluid. This amount of fluid is similar to the fluid retained before the onset of migraine headache, which may be accompanied by polyuria.
  • 218
  • 14 Mar 2024
Topic Review
SCD and Genetic Propensity for Dementia beyond Apolipoproteinε4
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) has been described as a probable early stage of dementia, as it has consistently appeared to precede the onset of objective cognitive impairment. SCD is related to many risk factors, including genetic predisposition for dementia. The Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, which has been thoroughly studied, seems to explain genetic risk for SCD only partially.
  • 203
  • 14 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Gene Therapy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Gene therapy allows for the modulation and correction of specific problem genes which are mutated in severe pathologies. The term “gene therapy” is loosely defined by many sources. The FDA defines it as “products whose effects are transferred through transcription/translation of genetic material via administration as nucleic acids, viruses, or genetically engineered microorganisms”. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked recessive muscle-wasting disease that results from mutations in the DMD gene on chromosome 21. Due to its poor survivorship, many interventions are being researched to improve outcomes for patients with this disease; gene therapy is an emerging field in this regard.
  • 219
  • 13 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Tackling Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases (IDs) are a leading cause of death. The diversity and adaptability of microbes represent a continuing risk to health.
  • 135
  • 13 Mar 2024
Topic Review
The Concept of Child-Centred Care in Healthcare
The position of children in healthcare reflects their changing and evolving positioning in society more broadly. The concept of child-centred care orientates children to a more central position within children’s healthcare, where the child is at the centre of thinking and practice. However, a clear definition of child-centred care and clarity around the concept is yet to be achieved.
  • 254
  • 12 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Effect of Sex Hormones on Migraine
Sex hormones and migraine are closely interlinked. Women report higher levels of migraine symptoms during periods of sex hormone fluctuation, particularly during puberty, pregnancy, and perimenopause. Ovarian steroids, such as estrogen and progesterone, exert complex effects on the peripheral and central nervous systems, including pain, a variety of special sensory and autonomic functions, and affective processing. A panel of basic scientists, when challenged to explain what was known about how sex hormones affect the nervous system, focused on two hormones: estrogen and oxytocin.
  • 382
  • 11 Mar 2024
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