Topic Review
Effects of PACAP on Schwann Cells
Schwann cells, the most abundant glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, represent the key players able to supply extracellular microenvironment for axonal regrowth and restoration of myelin sheaths on regenerating axons. Following nerve injury, Schwann cells respond adaptively to damage by acquiring a new phenotype. In particular, some of them localize in the distal stump to form the Bungner band, a regeneration track in the distal site of the injured nerve, whereas others produce cytokines involved in recruitment of macrophages infiltrating into the nerve damaged area for axonal and myelin debris clearance. Several neurotrophic factors, including pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), promote survival and axonal elongation of injured neurons. 
  • 88
  • 08 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Epigenetics of BC and the Role of miR-125
Breast Cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer types worldwide, and it is characterized by a complex etiopathogenesis, resulting in an equally complex classification of subtypes. MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) are small non-coding RNA molecules that have an essential role in gene expression and are significantly linked to tumor development and angiogenesis in different types of cancer. miR-125 is a highly conserved family of microRNAs whose members have also been found in nematodes (named lin-4 in 1993, the first miR described ever).
  • 89
  • 28 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy in Urological Malignancies
Fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) represents a novel diagnostic technique able to provide real-time histological images from non-fixed specimens. As a consequence of its recent developments, FCM is gaining growing popularity in urological practice. 
  • 76
  • 17 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Imaging Techniques Used in Fish Bioimages
Detecting skeletal or bone-related deformities in model and aquaculture fish is vital for numerous biomedical studies. In biomedical research, model fish with bone-related disorders are potential indicators of various chemically induced toxins in their environment or poor dietary conditions. In aquaculture, skeletal deformities are affecting fish health, and economic losses are incurred by fish farmers. 
  • 129
  • 09 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Mechanical Stress on Hyaluronan Fragments’ Inflammatory Cascade
The mechanical stress can depolymerize into small pieces at low molecular weight and have a high inflammatory capacity. Many of these pieces are then further degraded into small oligosaccharides. Recently, it has been demonstrated that oligosaccharides are able to stop this inflammatory process. These data support that deep friction could metabolize self-aggregated hyaluronan (HA) chains responsible for increasing loose connective tissue viscosity, catalyzing a local HA fragment cascade that will generate soreness but, at the same time, facilitate the reconstitution of the physiological loose connective tissue properties. This information can help to explain the meaning of the inflammatory process as well as the requirement for it for the long-lasting resolution of these alterations.
  • 161
  • 22 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Perivascular Astrocyte Endfeet
Astrocytes (ACs) are the most abundant cells in the brain and, importantly, are the master connecting and communicating cells that provide structural and functional support for brain cells at all levels of organization. Further, they are recognized as the guardians and housekeepers of the brain. Protoplasmic perivascular astrocyte endfeet and their basal lamina form the delimiting outermost barrier (glia limitans) of the perivascular spaces in postcapillary venules and are important for the clearance of metabolic waste. They comprise the glymphatic system, which is critically dependent on proper waste removal by the pvACef polarized aquaporin-4 water channels. Also, the protoplasmic perisynaptic astrocyte endfeet (psACef) are important in cradling the neuronal synapses that serve to maintain homeostasis and serve a functional and supportive role in synaptic transmission. Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) are emerging as important aberrant findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and are associated with white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, and aging, and are accepted as biomarkers for cerebral small vessel disease, increased obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Knowledge is exponentially expanding regarding EPVS along with the glymphatic system, since EPVS are closely associated with impaired glymphatic function and waste removal from the brain to the cerebrospinal fluid and systemic circulation.
  • 150
  • 12 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Vomeronasal System in Mammals
The vomeronasal system (VNS) or accessory olfactory system is specialized in detecting chemical signals, primarily pheromones, kairomones, and molecules from the major histocompatibility complex.
  • 480
  • 08 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Biomimetic Nerve Guidance Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration
Injuries to the peripheral nervous system are a common clinical issue, causing dysfunctions of the motor and sensory systems. Surgical interventions such as nerve autografting are necessary to repair damaged nerves. Even with autografting, i.e., the gold standard, malfunctioning and mismatches between the injured and donor nerves often lead to unwanted failure. Thus, there is an urgent need for a new intervention in clinical practice to achieve full functional recovery. Nerve guidance conduits (NGCs), providing physicochemical cues to guide neural regeneration, have great potential for the clinical regeneration of peripheral nerves. Typically, NGCs are tubular structures with various configurations to create a microenvironment that induces the oriented and accelerated growth of axons and promotes neuron cell migration and tissue maturation within the injured tissue. Once the native neural environment is better understood, ideal NGCs should maximally recapitulate those key physiological attributes for better neural regeneration.
  • 151
  • 20 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Probiotics and Probiotic-like Agents against Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis
Cancer chemotherapy has allowed many patients to survive, but not without risks derived from its adverse effects. Drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, methotrexate, and others, as well as different drug combinations trigger intestinal mucositis that may cause or contribute to anorexia, pain, diarrhea, weight loss, systemic infections, and even death. Dysbiosis is a hallmark of chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis and diarrhea, and, therefore, strategies aimed at modulating intestinal microbiota may be useful to counteract and prevent those dreadful effects.
  • 384
  • 25 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Health-Promoting Effects of Bioactive Compounds from  Endophytic Fungi
Plant endophytic fungi reside within the living tissues of plants, forming a unique symbiotic relationship. One of their defining features is their ability to exist within the plant for extended periods, often throughout the plant’s life cycle. They colonize various plant tissues, including leaves, stems, and roots, and display remarkable adaptability to different environmental conditions. Unlike pathogens, they do not provoke an immune response from the host plant, allowing them to maintain a stealthy coexistence. Endophytic fungi have evolved diverse mechanisms to survive within the plant’s internal environment. Some form specialized structures called “microsclerotia” or “sclerotia”, which protect them from adverse conditions. Others produce secondary metabolites, including bioactive compounds, which contribute to their ecological success and their potential to influence plant health
  • 163
  • 13 Oct 2023
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