Topic Review
Alcohol and Head and Neck Cancer
As suggested from recent findings, the role of alcohol in HNC seems to be broader than that of a simple risk factor. In this entry, authors report evidence from past studies to clarify the role of alcohol consumption in head and neck cancer (HNC) onset. Moreover, we further explore the role of oral microbiota, oxidative stress and genetic expression alterations due to alcohol drinking. Although alcohol is not the exclusive risk factor for HNC carcinogenesis, it plays a major role in the etiopathogenesis of both primary tumors and their recurrences, especially by means of ethanol and its metabolic products. Alcohol modifies oral microbiota, enhances intracellular oxidative stress, expose epithelial cells to carcinogens and alters cellular genetic expressions by promoting epigenetic mutations, DNA damage, and inaccurate DNA repair related to the formation of DNA adducts. The relationship between alcohol and HNC has been well established but, unfortunately, there is no clear threshold effect of alcohol for oncogenic patients, so that prevention and monitoring with long-term markers of alcohol consumption (especially those detected in the hair) that relay information on the actual alcohol drinking habits, seem to be the most effective ways to contrast its prevalence (and complications) in HNC drinker-patients. These conclusions seem to be especially important nowadays since, despite the established association between alcohol and HNC, a concerning pattern of alcohol consumption misconducts has been found in both in the general population and HNC  survivors. Interestingly, evidence that we report on HNC etiopathogenesis suggests a key role of polyphenols and alkylating agents for patient management, especially in case of heavy chronic drinkers.
  • 231
  • 20 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Allicin and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent evidence supports that inflammation plays a key role in triggering and maintaining pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent studies have shown that garlic extract has protective effects in PAH, but the precise role of allicin, a compound derived from garlic, is unknown. Thus, we used allicin to evaluate its effects on inflammation and fibrosis in PAH.
  • 173
  • 21 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Allicin on Cardiovascular Diseases
Allicin, a sulfur compound naturally derived from garlic, has shown beneficial effects on several cardiovascular risk factors through the modulation of cellular mechanisms and signaling pathways. Garlic is especially rich in sulfur-containing compounds; thus, many of these compounds can be responsible for its therapeutic effects. Recent studies have shown that allicin, a garlic-derived sulfur compound, has beneficial effects on different cell types that could be useful for the management of CVD or its risk factors. 
  • 175
  • 19 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Aminoglycosides ICU patients PopPK models
Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics used as treatment for Gram-negative infections in patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs). Life-threatening infections, often caused by Gram-negative bacteria [1,2], may lead to pathophysiological conditions, such as sepsis, influencing the pharmacokinetics (PK) of many drugs including antibiotics [3]. Antibiotic dosing regimens have been developed with the help of population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling and simulation [11]. Multiple studies have established PopPK models to characterize PK parameters and to gain a better understanding of the variability of aminoglycoside clinical response based on ICU patients’ characteristics. These studies have used nonlinear mixed effects modeling to target and quantify the contribution of specific demographic and pathophysiological characteristics that may influence the aminoglycoside PK profile. 
  • 149
  • 27 Jul 2021
Topic Review
An Insight into Psychedelic Drugs in Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia remains a serious chronic mental illness since its revelation more than a century ago by Dr. Emile Kraepelin. Despite the low prevalence, nearly 24 million people suffer from this disorder, which constitutes 1 in 300 people (0.32%) of the world’s population and this rate is 1 in 222 people (0.45%) among adults. The symptoms of schizophrenia more often appear in the second or third decade of life, and disease occurrence is tied to a combination of factors such as genetic, socio-demographic, and environmental factor. Clinical schizophrenia is presented in two unique and distinct sets of symptomatology, which include ‘positive’ symptoms and ‘negative’ symptoms, and is also accompanied by significant impairment of cognitive functioning in one or more major areas. This may include an inability to execute work, interpersonal relations, or self-care, and there is also a failure to achieve the expected level of interpersonal, academic, or occupational functioning. According to the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for mental disorders-V (DSM-V), the positive symptoms of schizophrenia are delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and behaviour; and the negative symptoms are diminished emotional expression or avolitio. These symptoms have been found to be chronically present once the disease starts, but generally the illness is marked as alternate signs of remission and exacerbation or partial remission or exacerbation. Some psychotic symptoms may be treated without the need for medication with proper human care, social support and care including electroconvulsive therapy.
  • 1373
  • 08 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Compounds from Echinoderms
Chronic inflammation can extensively burden a healthcare system. Several synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs are currently available in clinical practice, but each has its side effect profile. The planet is gifted with vast and diverse oceans, which provide a treasure of bioactive compounds, the chemical structures of which may provide valuable pharmaceutical agents. Marine organisms contain various bioactive compounds, some of which have anti-inflammatory activity and have received considerable attention from the scientific community to develop anti-inflammatory drugs. Herein, it was described such bioactive compounds, as well as crude extracts (published during 2010–2022) from echinoderms: namely, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, and starfish. Moreover, their chemical structures were also included, evaluation models, and anti-inflammatory activities, including the molecular mechanism(s) of these compounds. Herein, it also highlights the potential applications of those marine-derived compounds in the pharmaceutical industry to develop leads for the clinical pipeline. In conclusion, here is a well-documented reference for the research progress on developing potential anti-inflammatory drugs from echinoderms against various chronic inflammatory conditions.
  • 23
  • 17 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 to CTLA-4
PD-1 is an important factor in the normal immune response to prevent autoimmunity.
  • 130
  • 30 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori
H. pylori is a “fastidious” microorganism; culture methods are time-consuming and technically challenging. The advent of molecular biology techniques has enabled the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the observed phenotypic resistance to antibiotics in H. pylori.
  • 255
  • 12 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Antioxidant and Potential Antitumor Activity of Aronia Berries
Aronia berry (black chokeberry) is a shrub native to North America, of which the fresh fruits are used in the food industry to produce different types of dietary products. The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronia berries) have been found to show multiple bioactivities potentially beneficial to human health, including antidiabetic, anti-infective, antineoplastic, antiobesity, and antioxidant activities, as well as heart-, liver-, and neuroprotective effects. 
  • 20
  • 30 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Antioxidant Phytochemicals in HIV+ Patients
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has continued to be the subject of study since its discovery nearly 40 years ago. Significant advances in research and intake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have slowed the progression and appearance of the disease symptoms and the incidence of concomitant diseases, which are the leading cause of death in HIV+ persons.
  • 75
  • 01 Jun 2022
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