Topic Review
Valorisation of Carbon-Rich Wastes as Secondary Resources
Carbon-based materials have become an indispensable component in a myriad of domestic and industrial applications. Most of the carbon-based end-of-life products discussed end up in landfills. Where recycling is available, it usually involves the production of lower-value products. The allotropic nature of carbon has been analysed to identify novel materials that could be obtained from used products, which also transform into a secondary carbon resource. Thermal transformation of carbon-rich wastes is a promising and viable pathway for adding value to waste that would otherwise go to landfills. The valorisation routes of four different carbon-rich wastes by thermal transformation are reviewed in the study—automotive shredder residue (ASR), textile wastes, leather wastes, and spent coffee grounds (SCGs). Textile wastes were thermally transformed into carbon fibres and activated carbon, while ASRs were used as a reductant to produce silicon carbide (SiC) from waste glass. 
  • 30
  • 13 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Residual Stress Measurement Techniques for Railway Components
Manufacturing and maintenance procedures in the railway industry regularly implement welding and metal deposition operations to produce joints, coatings and repair structures. During these processes, residual stresses arise through the generation of heat affected zones and plastic deformation. This makes accurate measurements of the internal stresses a critical aspect of manufacturing, monitoring, repair and model validation in the develop new metallic coating and joining technologies. Selection of an appropriate residual stress measurement method has many important factors including component size, resolution and the magnitude and location of internal stresses, often resulting in a combination of techniques required to obtain complete assessment of the stress state. 
  • 26
  • 13 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Solid-State Welding of Steels
Welding is a joining process that permanently connects solid parts and forms components that cannot be divided without causing damage. Furthermore, welding is the most efficient and economical way to join similar or dissimilar materials with or without using filler material, heat, or external pressure. Welding can be processed in a variety of environments, including outdoors, inside, underwater, and even in outer space. The two main categories of welding methods, solid-state welding (SSW) and fusion welding, are processes to join metals. Fusion welding can be defined as the melting process of parent materials on facing surfaces with a filler material to form a weld bead. The fusion welding process comprises gas welding, arc welding, and intense-energy beam welding.
  • 28
  • 06 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Electrodeposition of Common Metals
The electrodeposition process of metals and their alloys is widely used in the automotive, space, electronics, computing, jewelry, and other consumer items industries.
  • 91
  • 15 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Aluminum Foam Sandwich
The aluminum foam sandwich (AFS), a typical AFCS, is composed of external solid panels and an internal porous aluminum foam core. According to the service conditions and manufacturing method, titanium, steel, aluminum, wood, ceramic, carbon fiber, and other materials can serve as the above-mentioned solid panels.
  • 68
  • 14 Dec 2022
Cornelius J. Barton
Cornelius J. Barton (born 1936) is an United States metallurgical engineer, businessman and the acting president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute from April 1998 until July 1999.[1] He received bachelor's, master's and Ph.D. degrees in metallurgical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is a member of the engineering honor society Sigma Xi and is a brother of the Delta Phi so
  • 79
  • 09 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Extraction of Metals from Copper Tailings through Leaching
A copper tailing is a residue, product of the flotation of sulfide minerals, which contain a variety of elements that can be valorized. The extraction of metals from copper tailings consist of applying metallurgical techniques, such as acid leaching or magnetic concentration, to obtain a valuable product. Currently, this is an important objective, given that mining operations have increased the generation of tailings. Acid leaching is a process that consists of dissolving a solid material, such as a tailing, by applying an acid solution. This process forms two final products: an insoluble solid, rich in aluminosilicates, and an acid liquid solution with different metal ions. Both products may have different characteristics and can be used for subsequent applications.
  • 126
  • 05 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Use of Secondary Carbon Bio-Carriers in Metallurgical Processes
The term ‘secondary carbon bio-carriers’ here refers to biomass, torrefied biomass, biochar, charcoal, or biocoke. The main focus is on torrefied biomass, which can act as a carbon source for partial or complete replacement of fossil fuel in various metallurgical processes. The material requirements for the use of secondary carbon bio-carriers in different metallurgical processes are systematized, and pathways for the use of secondary carbon bio-carriers in four main routes of steel production are described.
  • 85
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing of Magnesium-Based Alloys through Laser-Based Approach
Magnesium alloys continue to be important in the context of modern and lightweight technologies. The increased use of Mg each year indicates a rise in demand for alloys containing Mg. With additive manufacturing (AM), components can be produced directly in a net shape, providing new ideas relating to the new prospects for Mg-based materials. 
  • 155
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Tribological Behavior of Additively Manufactured Metal Components
Additive manufacturing (AM) has rapidly become a mainstream method of industrial production. Due to the involved layer-by-layer deposition, the amount of waste material can be limited, drastically reducing overall cost and conserving resources, unlike subtractive methods of manufacturing.
  • 66
  • 22 Nov 2022
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