Topic Review
Intermediate-Temperature Embrittlement of Metals and Alloys
The intermediate-temperature embrittlement range was examined for Fe, Al, Cu, and Ni alloys. It was found that this embrittlement occurs in many alloys, although the causes are very diverse. Embrittlement can be due to fine matrix precipitation, precipitate free zones, melting of compounds at the grain boundaries, segregation of elements to the boundaries, and, additionally for steel, the presence of the soft ferrite film surrounding the harder austenite matrix. Grain boundary sliding and segregation to the boundaries seem to dominate the failure mode at the base of the trough when intergranular failure takes place. When cracking is due to the presence of hydrogen or liquid films at the boundary, then the dissociation along the boundaries is so easy, it is often independent of the strain rate and is always intergranular. 
  • 175
  • 06 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Mechanisms of Hydrogen Embrittlement
Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a broadly recognized phenomenon in metallic materials. If not well understood and managed, HE may lead to catastrophic environmental failures in vessels containing hydrogen, such as pipelines and storage tanks. HE can affect the mechanical properties of materials such as ductility, toughness, and strength, mainly through the interaction between metal defects and hydrogen. Various phenomena such as hydrogen adsorption, hydrogen diffusion, and hydrogen interactions with intrinsic trapping sites like dislocations, voids, grain boundaries, and oxide/matrix interfaces are involved in this process.
  • 160
  • 05 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Pyrometallurgical Processes
The EU steel industry accounts for a crude steel production of 140 Mt/y, provided by the integrated (57%) and electric (43%) routes, which respectively require up to 6.0 and 0.6 MWh/tCrudeSteel of energy input, and emits on average 1.85 and 0.4 tCO2/tCrudeSteel. The mitigation of such CO2 emissions is crucial, and would involve the direct avoidance of carbon, improvement of energy efficiency, and carbon capture. However, the environmental burden of the steel industry cannot be limited to this, given the very large amount (approximately 5 Mt) of residues landfilled every year in the EU. This practice cannot be sustained anymore, since it represents a detrimental waste of resources and burden to the environment. These aspects require prompt action to meet the Green Deal goals envisioned for 2030. 
  • 178
  • 22 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Irradiation-Tolerant Refractory High-Entropy Alloys
Along with the globalization of environmental problems and the rapid development of the field of nuclear technologies, the severe irradiation damage of materials has become a big issue, restricting the development of advanced nuclear reactor systems. Refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) have the characteristics of a complex composition, a short-range order, and lattice distortion and possess a high phase stability, outstanding mechanical properties, and excellent irradiation resistance at elevated temperatures; thus, they are expected to be promising candidates for advanced nuclear reactors. 
  • 72
  • 18 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Corrosion at the Steel–Medium Interface
Corrosion on the interface between a metal alloy, such as steel, and a wet, permeable non-metallic medium is of considerable practical interest. Examples include the interface between steel and water, the atmosphere or concrete, as for steel reinforcement bars; between metal and soil, as for buried cast iron or steel pipes; deposits of some type, as in under-deposit corrosion; and the interface with insulation, protective coatings, or macro- or micro-biological agents. In all cases, corrosion initiation depends on the characteristics of the interfacial zone, both of the metal and the medium, and the spatial variability. For (near-)homogeneous semi-infinite media with good interfacial contact, the pitting, crevices and general corrosion of the metal will be largely controlled by the metal (micro-)characteristics, including its inclusions, imperfections and surface roughness. 
  • 202
  • 11 Feb 2024
Topic Review
High Entropy Amorphous Alloys
High entropy amorphous alloys (HEAAs) are materials that have received much attention in recent years. They exhibit many unique properties; however, research on their composition design method has not been deep enough.
  • 95
  • 02 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Beta-Ti Alloys
β-Ti alloys are known for their excellent corrosion resistance, biocompatibility (in Ti-Nb alloys), and high strength-to-weight ratios, and some grades have a relatively low Young’s modulus (E). These favorable properties have led to the use of these alloys in the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, and industrial sectors.
  • 127
  • 01 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Restoration of Soils and Groundwater Contaminated by Explosives
Soil pollution resulting from explosives represents a critical environmental challenge. While physical methods like excavation and disposal are effective, their applicability is constrained by cost and logistical challenges for large contaminated areas. Chemical methods, such as oxidation and reduction, focus on transforming explosives into less toxic byproducts. Biological remediation utilizing plants and microorganisms emerges as a cost-effective and sustainable alternative. 
  • 70
  • 31 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Tribology of HEAs Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are prospective advanced materials for the production of components that operate at high, severe friction and in high-temperature environments. This is because they possess unique properties requisite for such applications. The tribology of HEAs is described. The exploits of wear-resistant HEAs, the development techniques of wear-resistant HEAs, challenges in developing wear-resistant HEAs, and so on, are included.
  • 556
  • 12 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Fused Filament Fabrication for Metallic Materials
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is an extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) technology mostly used to produce thermoplastic parts. FFF for metallic parts can be divided into five steps: (1) raw material selection and feedstock mixture (including palletization), (2) filament production (extrusion), (3) production of AM components using the filament extrusion process, (4) debinding, and (5) sintering.
  • 161
  • 12 Dec 2023
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