Topic Review
Cadmium Recovery from Spent Ni-Cd Batteries
The significant increase in the demand for efficient electric energy storage during the last decade has promoted an increase in the production and use of Cd-containing batteries. On the one hand, the amount of toxic Cd-containing used batteries is growing, while on the other hand, Cd is on a list of critical raw materials (for Europe). Both of these factors call for the development of effective technology for Cd recovery from spent batteries. Alkaline nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries are widely used as autonomous sources of industrial and household current (power banks) due to a successful combination of feasibility studies and achieved sustainable electrical characteristics. In recent decades, the market of secondary current sources for portable equipment has undergone significant changes, which leads to an intensive replacement of Ni-Cd batteries with lithium-ion (LIB) and nickel-metal-hydride.
  • 179
  • 07 Feb 2022
Topic Review
China Intelligent Manufacturing Technology in the Steel Industry
Intelligent manufacturing, defined as the integration of manufacturing with modern information technologies such as 5G, digitalization, networking, and intelligence, has grown in popularity as a means of boosting the productivity, intelligence, and flexibility of traditional manufacturing processes. The steel industry is a necessary support for modern life and economic development, and the Chinese steel industry’s capacity has expanded to roughly half of global production.
  • 52
  • 03 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Cracked Concrete
Corrosion is an electrochemical reaction consisting of anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions. Micro-cell corrosion refers to the situation where active dissolution and the corresponding cathodic half-cell reaction occur in adjacent parts of the same metal. For a steel reinforcing bar in concrete, the surface of the corroding steel can act as a mixed electrode containing both anode and cathode regions connected by the bar itself. Macro-cell corrosion can also form on a single bar exposed to different environments within the concrete or where part of the bar extends outside the concrete. In both cases, the concrete pore solution functions as an electrolyte.
  • 76
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Continuous Casting Practices for Steel
Continuous casting practices for steelmaking have been constantly evolving ever since the early 1930s, when Junghans was first researching ways to pour liquid steel into an open-bottomed, water-cooled mold, to withdraw the partially solidified steel out of it, continuously, in the form of a round or square billet or slab. He envisioned that once these continuously cast shapes had become fully frozen, their solidified ends could be cut off for further processing. In this way, they could be transformed into “rebar” to reinforce concrete, or into bars from which nails, bolts, tire cord wire, etc., could be fashioned, etc. However, long before that, Sir Henry Bessemer had proposed a far more elegant approach, involving two, contra-rotating rolls, into which liquid steel is poured, to produce a thin solidified sheet of steel directly, within a few milliseconds. This is referred to as a Near Net Shape Casting Process. After 150 years of trying, CASTRIP, a subsidiary of NUCOR, BHP, and IHI, made this process a commercial success, where many previous attempts had failed. However, there is an even better NNSC process, referred to as HSBC, or "Horizontal Single Belt Casting", that has also been commercially successful. The HSBC process is capable of casting many different grades of steel, unlike the Bessemer CASTRIP process, by casting ~10 - 15mm thick strips, that can then be rolled down to a final sheet ~1.5 - 0.5mm. thickness, in a one-step continuous process.  
  • 449
  • 06 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Critical MIM + SH Processing Parameters
Metal injection molding (MIM) combined with the use of a space holder (SH) is a very attractive route for the fabrication of highly porous titanium and titanium alloy components for biomedical applications. This approach allows fine control of the morphology, architecture, and purity of very complex net-shaped components.
  • 150
  • 13 May 2022
Topic Review
Development of Bottom-Blowing Copper Smelting Technology
Bottom-blowing copper smelting technology was initiated and developed in China in the 1990s. Injection of oxygen-enriched high-pressure gas strongly stirs the molten bath consisting of matte and slag. Rapid reaction at relatively lower temperatures and good adaptability of the feed materials are the main advantages of this technology. Development and optimisation of bottom-blowing copper smelting technology were supported by extensive studies on the thermodynamics of the slag and the fluid dynamic of the molten bath.
  • 750
  • 26 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Effect of Alloying Elements on Implants Properties Magnesium
Magnesium has been found to have special osteoconductive properties, which is much appreciated when used as bone implants. It has been reported that Mg, as a cofactor of the alkaline phosphatase isozymes, helps in the healing and remodeling of the bone tissue. Magnesium-based stents are also useful where biodegradable nasal stents could help avoid treatment failure that occurs due to the secondary operations that are required of traditional implants. The potential application of biodegradable magnesium alloys is not limited to its use as temporary implants.
  • 94
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Effect of Sn Grain Orientation on Electromigration
Sn-rich solder joints in three-dimensional integrated circuits and their reliability issues, such as electromigration (EM), thermomigration (TM), and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF), have drawn attention related to their use in electronic packaging.  The Sn grain orientation is recognized as playing an important role in reliability issues due to its anisotropic diffusivity, mechanical properties, and coefficient of thermal expansion.
  • 81
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Erosive Wear of Cermets
Solid-particle erosion occurs when discrete solid particles strike a surface. It differs from three-body abrasion primarily in the origin of forces between the particles and the wearing surface. In erosion, the extent of wear depends on the number and mass of individual particles striking the surface and on their impact velocity [8]. The difference of erosion from the abrasive wear lies in its fluid contribution to the mechanical action producing material removal. Solid-particle erosion is common in any system in which a gas stream carries abrasive particles. If loose abrasive particles are carried by a liquid, the wear is termed as slurry erosion.  WC-based hardmetals (cemented carbides) are employed widely as wear-resistant ceramic-metal composites for tools and wear parts. Raw materials supply, environmental concerns and some limitations of hardmetals have directed efforts toward development of alternative wear-resistant composites-cermets. Cermets consist primarily of ceramic particles such as titanium carbonitride (Ti(C,N)), titanium carbide (TiC), and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) bonded with alloys of Ni, Co or Fe. Cermets as resistant to solid particle erosion materials demonstrate their potential primarily in environmentally severe wear conditions – at elevated temperatures and corrosive environments.
  • 122
  • 10 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Extraction of Metals from Copper Tailings through Leaching
A copper tailing is a residue, product of the flotation of sulfide minerals, which contain a variety of elements that can be valorized. The extraction of metals from copper tailings consist of applying metallurgical techniques, such as acid leaching or magnetic concentration, to obtain a valuable product. Currently, this is an important objective, given that mining operations have increased the generation of tailings. Acid leaching is a process that consists of dissolving a solid material, such as a tailing, by applying an acid solution. This process forms two final products: an insoluble solid, rich in aluminosilicates, and an acid liquid solution with different metal ions. Both products may have different characteristics and can be used for subsequent applications.
  • 26
  • 05 Dec 2022
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