Topic Review
Influence of DDP Chemotherapy on miRNA Expression
Platinum-based chemotherapy, cisplatin (DDP) specifically, is the main strategy for treating lung cancer (LC). However, there is a lack of predictive drug-resistance markers, and there is increased interest in the development of a reliable and sensitive panel of markers for DDP chemotherapy-effectiveness prediction. MicroRNAs represent a perspective pool of markers for chemotherapy effectiveness.
  • 8
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Genetic Monitoring of Hemiboreal Tree Dynamics
Observed climate change (CC) has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems, forests, economies, and human health in Europe. These impacts vary across main biogeographical regions in Europe depending on climatic, geographic, and socio-economic conditions. Forests are characterized by the development of contiguous communities of trees sufficiently uniform in composition, structure, age, size, class, distribution, spatial arrangement, site quality, condition, or location to distinguish them from adjacent communities created by human intervention. Human impact on tree species occurs directly through population transfer, regeneration, and the silvicultural regimes applied, and this impact is large as it lasts for centuries.
  • 5
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Innate Immune Control of Fungal Infections
Fungal spores are ubiquitous in the environment and are encountered on a daily basis. Fungi that enter the body are usually controlled by human's innate immune system, preventing disease from developing. Detection of fungal surface ligands by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) triggers a pro-inflammatory response, resulting in innate immune activation and elimination of fungi when the immune response is effective, or ineffective clearance and development of disease when immunity fails.
  • 27
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Microbiota and Immune/Semiochemical System
The expression microbiota-gut-brain axis is well recognised nowadays (alongside the related terms microbiome-gut-brain axis and, occasionally, brain-gut-microbiota axis), however it is also clear that the action of the microbiome includes an immune system component. In turn, any concerning reaction from this system will necessarily involve the brain in fashioning a coordinated response, such as is seen in the case of traveller’s diarrhoea, for example. The interaction of the microbiota with the body is therefore bidirectional: with the gut wall itself and with the immune system, both of which link through to the brain. Any chemical communication with the microbiome is actually semiochemical, in the sense of the transfer of signalling information between the Kingdoms of Life, i.e. prokaryote to eukaryote and vice versa. Accordingly, the two terms “microbiota-gut-brain axis” and “immune/semiochemical system” should be considered alongside one another.
  • 19
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Flaxseed Gum
FG, also known as flaxseed mucilage, is present in the outer layer of the seed coat, and its content in the whole seed ranges between 3.5–15.0%, depending on the flax variety and the planting area. The extraction method and its parameters determine the yield, purity, and properties of FG. For instance, the temperature of extraction is an essential factor affecting the chemical composition, functional properties and biological activities. Functional properties of FG can also be determined by the processing after extraction, for instance, by drying. Thus, the applied extraction method and further processing are the key factors for obtaining FG with the optimal properties according to subsequent use.
  • 17
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Bioactive Antimicrobial Peptides
Among the biomolecules of emerging scientific interest are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), potent biomolecules that can potentially act as important weapons against infectious diseases. Moreover, synthetic AMPs are easily tailored (bioinformatically) to target specific features of the pathogens to hijack, inducing no or very low resistance. 
  • 17
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Biodegradation of Polyolefins
Polyolefins, including PE, PP and PS, are composed of C–C and C–H bonds, which are more stable against degradation than ester bonds. During polyolefin biodegradation, C–C and C–H bonds are oxidized. Many types of microorganisms have been isolated from sea water, compost and activated sludge with the capacity for polyolefin biodegradation.With the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering strategies, engineered strains could be used to degrade plastics.
  • 13
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Marine Arthropods
Peptide therapeutics play a key role in the development of new medical treatments. The traditional focus on endogenous peptides has shifted from first discovering other natural sources of these molecules, to later synthesizing those with unique bioactivities. Marine arthropods do not have an adaptive immune system, and therefore, they depend on the innate immune system to eliminate pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with unique characteristics are a pivotal part of the defense systems of these organisms.
  • 12
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Microglia in Brain Homeostasis and Neuroinflammation
Neuroinflammation is a common hallmark in different neurodegenerative conditions that share neuronal dysfunction and a progressive loss of a selectively vulnerable brain cell population. Alongside ageing and genetics, inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered key risk factors. Microglia are considered immune sentinels of the central nervous system capable of initiating an innate and adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying the initiation and spread of inflammation in the brain are still poorly described.
  • 10
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Hairy Root Cultures for Polyphenolic Antioxidants
Due to their chemical properties and biological activity, antioxidants of plant origin have gained interest as valuable components of the human diet, potential food preservatives and additives, ingredients of cosmetics and factors implicated in tolerance mechanisms against environmental stress. Plant polyphenols are the most prominent and extensively studied, albeit not only group of secondary plant (specialized) metabolites manifesting antioxidative activity. Because of their potential economic importance, the productive and renewable sources of the compounds are desirable. Over thirty years of research on hairy root cultures, as both producers of secondary plant metabolites and experimental systems to investigate plant biosynthetic pathways, brought about several spectacular achievements in enhancing polyphenolic antioxidant production by plant tissues. 
  • 9
  • 16 Aug 2022
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