Topic Review
Uses of Magnetic Fields for Health Applications
Early life on Earth evolved in the contexts of temperature, available elements, and molecules (including water), as well as the biophysical boundary conditions of the planet. The latter include gravity (1 g), exogenous and endogenous radiation from particles from beyond Earth and radioactive elements on Earth, and magnetic fields due to the planet’s magnetic field and local concentrations of molecules such as iron. Humans and other animals, plants, and microorganisms have been exposed to a variety of magnetic fields other than the geomagnetic field of Earth and deposits of ferro materials. Magnetic fields, static or electromagnetic, have been used in attempts to improve outcomes for the repair of a variety of tissues.
  • 254
  • 19 Jun 2024
Topic Review
Tumoroid
The term “tumoroid” means “tumor-like organoid”: tumoroids typically derive from primary tumors harvested from oncological patients and they can mimic human tumor microenvironment (TME); nowadays, they are considered a promising tool for cost-effective studies on novel anticancer drugs to be used in precision medicine in the field of oncology.
  • 4.3K
  • 18 Jun 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
The Evolutionary System of the Biosphere and the Metameric Concept of Its Evolution: From the Past to the Future
We offer a detailed description of our previously published new concept of the evolution of the biosphere as an integral system of its states over time, united by development trends. The structure of the biosphere is considered as a hierarchical fractal system, and the elementary unit of the biosphere is an ecosystem. The fractal structure of the biosphere corresponds to the emergent principle: each lower level is an element of a more complex system and has its own properties. The proposed concept of biosphere evolution is based on the general categories of dialectics: states and interstates, continuity and discreteness, reproducibility and uniqueness. The evolutionary history of the biosphere is a metameric picture of changing states and interstates. The most important feature of the biosphere organization in space–time is a complex system of continua. The development of an integral biospheric system occurs in a time continuum: in the biosphere, the differences between the early and subsequent states are quite significant and obvious. Moreover, these differences are associated with fundamental complications, development, which is, in fact, evolution. The states of the biosphere in certain periods are linked by trends that form an evolutionary system. Continuing states, when the system remains self-identical for a long period, are replaced by new states through interstates. Based on the principle of actualism, the problems of the biosphere’s future and evolutionary trends of the biosphere under anthropogenic impact are considered.
  • 241
  • 28 May 2024
Topic Review
Helicobacter pylori infection, pathogenicity, and therapeutic advances
A primer on Helicobacter pylori virulence factors, pathogenicity, gastric conditions that are caused by infection, and treatment modalities. This entry is adapted from the peer-reviewed paper 10.3390/pathogens13050392
  • 445
  • 17 May 2024
Topic Review
Sustainable and innovative processing for safe (healthy) foods
Sustainable and innovative technologies involving high-pressure processing (HPP), high-pressure homogenization (HPH), high-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD), pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasounds (US), and microwaves (MV), among others, as well as traditional methods of food treatment like heating, fermentation, and drying or smoking are increasingly applied in food preservation and the modification of selected physicochemical or sensory properties. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight new challenges in the treatment of food for obtaining traditional or new but safe products, including functional foods, with high or modified nutritional (bioaccessibility and bioavailability) and sensory values.
  • 369
  • 15 May 2024
Topic Review
Applications of Gellan Gum
Gellan gum (GG) is a linear, negatively charged exopolysaccharide that is biodegradable and non-toxic. When metallic ions are present, a hard and transparent gel is produced, which remains stable at a low pH. It exhibits high water solubility, can be easily bio-fabricated, demonstrates excellent film/hydrogel formation, is biodegradable, and shows biocompatibility. These characteristics render GG a suitable option for use in food, biomedical, and cosmetic fields.
  • 301
  • 13 May 2024
Topic Review
Nutritive Value of Strawberry Tree
The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) is a Mediterranean plant known for the traditional use of its fruits and leaves due to their health benefits.
  • 317
  • 13 May 2024
Topic Review
Wild Food Plants
Wild food plants (WFPs) are generally considered species that grow spontaneously in self-sustaining populations outside cultivated areas, in field margins, forests, woodland, grassland, and wetlands (e.g., paddy fields), independently of human activity. However, the distinction between “wild” and “cultivated” or “domesticated” is not so clear-cut and many wild food plants fall somewhere in between these two extremes depending on the degree of human intervention and management. Semi-domesticated species, in addition to economically important non-timber forest food products, such as açaí berries and Brazil nuts, can also be considered "wild" to some extent as they grow naturally in forest with limited management or human intervention. As they are often wild relatives of domesticated species, WFPs have potential for domestication and can provide a pool of genetic resources for hybridization and selective breeding.
  • 2.8K
  • 13 May 2024
Topic Review
Food Fraud
Food fraud is an increasingly problematic phenomenon, whose presence may be significantly reduced by FBOs, by implementing a food quality management system and food defence principles within production (FSCC 22000, BRC Food Standard 8, PAS 96, IFS Food Version 6.1, SQF Quality Code), in order for manufacturers that have an interest to retain the quality of the final food product, as well as consumers’ trust.
  • 380
  • 13 May 2024
Topic Review
Extractions and Processing of Biologically Active Compounds
Some functional foods contain biologically active compounds (BAC) that can be derived from various biological sources (fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, wastes, and by-products). Global food markets demand foods from plant materials that are “safe”, “fresh”, “natural”, and with “nutritional value” while processed in sustainable ways. Functional foods commonly incorporate some plant extract(s) rich with BACs produced by conventional extraction. This approach implies negative thermal influences on extraction yield and quality with a large expenditure of organic solvents and energy. On the other hand, sustainable extractions, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), high-pressure assisted extraction (HPAE), high voltage electric discharges assisted extraction (HVED), pulsed electric fields assisted extraction (PEF), supercritical fluids extraction (SFE), and others are aligned with the “green” concepts and able to provide raw materials on industrial scale with optimal expenditure of energy and chemicals. 
  • 242
  • 13 May 2024
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