Topic Review
Dermo-Cosmetic Benefits of Marine Macroalgae-Derived Phenolic Compounds
Marine macroalgae have an interesting profile of bioactive compounds and have gained tremendous attention in cosmeceuticals with negligible toxicity effects (cytotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, etc.) on humans and exhibit strong benefits for the skin. Among the diversified compounds, phenolic compounds are the group of phytochemicals found in high amounts with great structural diversity. Phlorotannin is the most studied polyphenol compound in brown algae, but besides there are some other phenolic compounds observed and studied in macroalgae such as terpenoids, bromophenols, mycosporine amino acids (MAAs), and flavonoids. These compounds are already characterized and studied for their full range of cosmeceutical benefits such as skin whitening, moisturizing, photoprotection, antiaging, antiwrinkle, anti-melanogenic, and antioxidant activities as well as in the treatment of pruritus (caused by acne, eczema, dermatitis, hives, psoriasis), photoaging, and skin pigmentation disorders (hypopigmentation due to the absence of melanocytes and hyperpigmentation caused by skin irritation or metabolic disorders). 
  • 21
  • 04 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Type I IFNs in Long-Haul COVID Syndrome
Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines originally identified for their antiviral activity. IFN-α and IFN-β are both type I IFNs that have been used to treat neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Microglia, astrocytes, as well as neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including spinal cord neurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons, express type I IFN receptors (IFNARs). Type I IFNs play an active role in regulating cognition, aging, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases. Notably, by suppressing neuronal activity and synaptic transmission, IFN-α and IFN-β produced potent analgesia.
  • 9
  • 04 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Molecular Cellular Level and Genetic Material of Donkeys
Lack of archaeological and whole-genome diversity data has restricted current knowledge of the evolutionary history of donkeys. With the advancement of science and technology, the discovery of archaeological evidence, the development of molecular genetics, and the improvement of whole-genome sequencing technology, the in-depth understanding of the origin and domestication of donkeys has been enhanced. The donkey is an equine animal of the order Odd-toed ungulates. Among common livestock animals, it occupies an important place in the history of human transportation. It is often used as a pack animal for long-distance transportation due to its good packability, durability, and traction, thereby greatly facilitating commerce among regions. With the advancement of modern technology, mechanization of agriculture, and rapid development of transportation, the service value of donkeys has decreased. In economically developed regions (such as Italy and America), donkeys are more often bred as ornamental pets. However, in fast-growing developing countries (such as China), donkeys are more often used as a source of meat for mass breeding because of their rich intra-muscular fat and superior taste. Donkey milk is being sold as a commodity for the treatment of infants, the sick and the elderly who are physically weak. Donkey milk is rich in nutrients and is whey-protein milk, which is the closest to human milk and can be used as a substitute for breast milk, and has various functions such as regulating immunity and promoting growth. The scale of donkey breeding and the quality of donkey breeds are also decreasing in developed areas; however, the size of donkey inventories continues to slowly increase in developing areas.
  • 9
  • 04 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Influence of Root Vegetables on Health
Root vegetables are characterized by high nutritional value due to their richness in dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. One of their most important features is their high content of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, phenols, flavonoids, and vitamin C. These compounds are responsible for antioxidant potential. Moreover, root vegetables are characterized by several health-promoting effects, including the regulation of metabolic parameters (glucose level, lipid profile, and blood pressure), antioxidant potential, prebiotic function, and anti-cancer properties. However, due to the type of cultivation, root vegetables are vulnerable to contaminants from the soil, such as toxic metals (lead and cadmium), pesticides, pharmaceutical residues, microplastics, and nitrates. Vegetables can be classified based on their botanical origin, hardiness or temperature, and plant part used, i.e. leaves, fruits, or roots. Root vegetables include carrot, radish, potato, yam, ginseng, celery, parsley, and horseradish.  
  • 11
  • 03 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Cell Sources for Retinal Regeneration
The main degenerative diseases of the retina include macular degeneration, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, and glaucoma. Novel approaches for treating retinal diseases are based on cell replacement therapy using a variety of exogenous stem cells. An alternative and complementary approach is the potential use of retinal regeneration cell sources (RRCSs) containing retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body, Müller glia, and retinal ciliary region. RRCSs in lower vertebrates in vivo and in mammals mostly in vitro are able to proliferate and exhibit gene expression and epigenetic characteristics typical for neural/retinal cell progenitors.
  • 5
  • 03 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Biological Control of Fall Armyworm
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the most important invasive pests worldwide, resulting in considerable losses in host crops. FAW comprises two genetic strains, such as the “rice strain”, which prefers rice and other grass species, and the “maize strain”, which feeds upon maize and sorghum. Potential control measures are generally more applicable to the farmers who lack financial assets to buy chemical insecticides or costly pure seeds. The adverse effects of pesticides on the ecosystem and human’s health and the development of resistance to insect pests have exaggerated efforts to find an alternative strategy that is cost-effective, low-risk and target-specific. Therefore, biological control is widely considered as one of the most important options for insect pest management. 
  • 8
  • 03 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Secondary Metabolites from Trichoderma harzianum
The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, from both marine and terrestrial environments, has attracted considerable attention. T. harzianum has a tremendous potential to produce a variety of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs), which are an important source of new herbicides and antibiotics.
  • 9
  • 03 Dec 2022
Topic Review
SAM y el Proceso Inflamatorio Pulmonar
El Síndrome de Aspiración de Meconio es una condición que causa dificultad respiratoria en los recién nacidos debido a la oclusión e inflamación de las vías respiratorias, y la inactivación del surfactante por el meconio. Esta condición ha sido descrita en especies animales como cánidos, ovejas, vacas, caballos, cerdos y mamíferos marinos. El daño pulmonar en pacientes con SAM se atribuye a diferentes mecanismos, como la obstrucción de las vías respiratorias, la neumonitis química y la inflamación por activación del sistema inmunitario. 
  • 8
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
MET in Cancer Initiation and Driver Mutations
The MET gene, known as MET proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase, was first identified to induce tumor cell migration, invasion, and proliferation/survival through canonical RAS-CDC42-PAK-Rho kinase, RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT-mTOR, and β-catenin signaling pathways, and its driver mutations, such as MET gene amplification (METamp) and the exon 14 skipping alterations (METex14), activate cell transformation, cancer progression, and worse patient prognosis, principally in lung cancer through the overactivation of their own oncogenic and MET parallel signaling pathways. Because of this, MET driver alterations have become recognized as actionable alterations in lung adenocarcinomas since the FDA approval target therapies for METamp and METex14 in 2020. 
  • 20
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
The Evolution of Fermented Milks
The manufacture of fermented milk products has a long history, and these products were initially produced either from spontaneous fermentation or using a batch of previously produced product, that is, back-slopping. Milk of different mammal species has traditionally been used for the manufacture of fermented milk products. Cow’s milk is the basis for most dairy fermented products around the world. Milk from other mammals, including sheep, goat, camel, mare, buffalo, and yak may have been historically more important and remain so in certain regions. The milks from different species have differences in chemical composition and in certain, vital for the fermentation, components. The diversity of fermented milk products is further influenced by the wide variety of manufacturing practices. A great number of fermented dairy products have been traditionally produced worldwide, and many of them are still produced either following the same traditional process or manufactured industrially, using standardized processes under controlled conditions with specified starter cultures.
  • 7
  • 02 Dec 2022
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