Topic Review
Extracellular Matrix in Chronic Inflammation
 Bidirectional communication between cells and their microenvironment has a key func-24 tion in normal tissue homeostasis and for disease initiation, progression and patient’s prognosis at 25 least. The extracellular matrix (ECM), as an element of all tissues and cellular microenvironment, is 26 a frequently overlooked component in implication in pathogenesis and progression of several dis-27 eases. In inflammatory microenvironment (IME) different alterations affect ECM resulting from re-28 modeling processes which progressively induce cancer initiation and the passage toward a tumor 29 microenvironment (TME). Indeed, it is demonstrated that altered ECM components interact with a 30 variety of surface receptors triggering intracellular signaling that, in turn, affect cellular pathways. 31 Supporting this concept, new studies have offered exciting clues about the function of decellular-32 ized ECM (dECM) and its components, as active participants in cancer and inflammation diseases 33 evolution, once matched it with other cellular elements. This review aims to support the notion that 34 the ECM, rather than acting as a passive element, is an active participant in promotion of chronic 35 inflammatory and cancer initiation. Particularly we highlight the different effects of ECM compo-36 nents alterations in both disease and the correlation between chronic inflammation and cancer ini-37 tiation. In conclusion, we sought to explore the employment of dECM models as a tool to prevent 38 cancer initiation. Indeed, reporting some of the data obtained in cancer research, we reflect about 39 the employment of dECM models to investigate the short-circuits contributing to create distinct 40 IME, representing, thus, a potential tool to avoid the progression toward a malignant lesion.
  • 7
  • 26 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Autophagy in Plant Cell Death
Autophagy is considered as a two-faced process: it can ensure cell survival as well as promote cell death. Autophagic cell death (ACD) is the second form of animal PCD. It is associated with increased numbers of autophagosomes, autolysosomes, and small lytic vacuoles. Autophagic death is a controversial idea that has been discussed and debated many times. Although our knowledge of this subject in plants is limited, a few examples of cell death with autophagy have been described.
  • 19
  • 26 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Autophagy in Polyglutamine
Polyglutamine diseases are a group of congenital neurodegenerative diseases categorized with genomic abnormalities in the expansion of CAG triplet repeats in coding regions of specific disease-related genes. Autophagy is defined as the degradation of intracellular components within the lysosome; self-eating.
  • 17
  • 26 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Metabolic Fate of Orally Ingested Proanthocyanidins
Proanthocyanidins (PACs), which are oligomers or polymers of flavan-3ols with potent antioxidative activity, are well known to exert a variety of beneficial health effects.
  • 12
  • 25 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Mechanism of CNTs Uptake by Cells and Spheroids
Cell spheroids (CSs) are three-dimensional models in vitro that have a microenvironment similar to tissues. Such three-dimensional cellular structures are of great interest in the field of nano biomedical research, as they can simulate information about the characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) by avoiding the use of laboratory animals.
  • 11
  • 25 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Plastic Mulch Materials
Mulches can be defined as materials that are applied or grow on the soil surface (the latter are the living mulches), in contrast to soil-incorporated materials. The use of plastic mulch films is widespread in agriculture for specialty cropping systems because of several benefits. 
  • 27
  • 25 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Effects of Growth Environment on Lemna minor
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels can have negative impacts on food security through effects on plant photosynthesis, productivity, and nutritional quality, especially in the presence of additional environmental stressors. This entry presents a multi-factorial analysis of how differing levels of atmospheric CO2 and mineral nutrient supply affect productivity and nutritional quality of the aquatic floating plant Lemna minor (common duckweed) in the presence or absence of its microbiome. Elevated CO2 in combination with low nutrient supply decreased plant area-expansion rate and increased biomass accumulation, with minimal negative impacts on protein-to-biomass ratio but stronger declines in the content of essential human micronutrients. Inoculation with plant-associated microorganisms restored area-expansion rate and further stimulated accumulation of biomass with an unaltered protein-to-biomass ratio compared to uninoculated plants under a combination of elevated CO2 and low nutrient supply. Under ample nutrient supply, inoculation ameliorated the declines in micronutrient content induced by elevated CO2. These findings add additional insight into possible roles of duckweed in sustainable systems and support a role for the plant microbiome in protecting plant productivity and nutritional quality in a manner that varies with specific growth conditions and plant traits. This understanding is relevant in both agricultural and natural contexts during a time of rapid environmental change.
  • 31
  • 23 Jan 2023
Topic Review
MicroRNAs as Potential Clinical Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. When diagnosed at an early stage, survival outcomes are favourable for the vast majority, with up to 90% of ovarian cancer patients being free of disease at 5 years follow-up. Unfortunately, ovarian cancer is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage due to the majority of patients remaining asymptomatic until the cancer has metastasised, resulting in poor outcomes for the majority. While the molecular era has facilitated the subclassification of the disease into distinct clinical subtypes, ovarian cancer remains managed and treated as a single disease entity. Biomarkers are objectively measured such that they are informative of normal biological processes, pathological processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. The incorporation of biomarkers into clinical practice can improve early detection of disease and aid the design of treatment regimens specific for individual patients. However, clinically established biomarkers for ovarian cancer currently lack robust reliability and specificity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (19–25 nucleotides), endogenous molecules which are integral to regulating gene expression. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles have been described in several cancers, and have been implicated to be useful biomarkers which may aid cancer diagnostics and treatment. This work identifies and characterises miRNAs which are associated with ovarian cancer and show potential for use as clinical biomarkers for the disease.
  • 11
  • 23 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Oxidized β-Carotene
Oxidized β-carotene (OxBC), a phytochemical that occurs naturally in plants, including fruits and vegetables, is formed by the spontaneous reaction of β-carotene with ambient oxygen. Synthetic OxBC, obtained by the full oxidation of β-carotene with air, shows considerable promise as a parts-per-million in-feed antimicrobial alternative additive that enhances health and performance in poultry, swine, and ruminant species. OxBC is predominantly composed of β-carotene–oxygen copolymers that have beneficial immune-modulating effects.
  • 15
  • 23 Jan 2023
Topic Review
3D Printing of Agri-Food Processing Wastes
With increasing evidence of their relevance to resource recovery, waste utilization, zero waste, a circular economy, and sustainability, food-processing waste streams are being viewed as an aspect of both research and commercial interest. Accordingly, different approaches have evolved for their management and utilization. With excellent levels of customization, three-dimensional (3D) printing has found numerous applications in various sectors. The focus of this work is to explain the state of the art, innovative interventions, and promising features of 3D printing technology for the valorization of agri-food processing waste streams. Based on recent works, this article covers two aspects: the conversion of processing waste streams into edible novel foods or inedible biodegradable materials for food packing and allied applications. However, this application domain cannot be limited to only what is already established, as there are ample prospects for several other application fields intertwining 3D food printing and waste processing. In addition, this article presents the key merits of the technology and emphasizes research needs and directions for future work on this disruptive technology, specific to food-printing applications.
  • 50
  • 23 Jan 2023
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