Topic Review
Type 2 Diabetes: Beta Cell Compensation and Death
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a worldwide epidemic, primarily driven by obesity from overnutrition and sedentariness. Physiologically, T2D manifests as an inability of the pancreatic beta cells to produce and secrete a sufficient bolus of insulin to elicit a response in target cells to transport glucose from the blood and properly regulate glucose levels. Insulin is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of pancreatic beta cells where it undergoes a series of post-translational modifications to form mature insulin. Insulin resistance requires more insulin to be produced by beta cells to compensate for these desensitized cells. Consequently, this compensation causes additional strain on beta cells. This stress primarily originates from the ER and can also trigger oxidative stress. These cellular stresses can lead to beta cell decompensation, manifested by dysfunction and eventually a loss of beta cell mass.
  • 9
  • 02 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Biodiesel Production Process from Yeast Lipids
Renewable sources of energy have been sought due to the environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels, such as greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. A promising alternative is biodiesel, particularly when obtained using yeast, as they offer certain advantages over other microorganisms due to their resilience to grow in various conditions, short reproduction times, and lower susceptibility to bacterial infections because they thrive at lower pH levels and have the ability to utilize a wide variety of substrates. Furthermore, biodiesel produced with yeast is composed of methyl ester fatty acids (FAME), providing it with good quality and performance in internal combustion engines, resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional diesel. The production of biodiesel using yeast involves six general stages, which offer various methodological alternatives with different degrees of sustainability.
  • 19
  • 02 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Decision Support Systems in Forestry and Tree-Planting Practices
Using deep neural networks (DNNs), a decision support system (DSS) can be trained to learn from a large dataset of tree data, including information about tree species, climate, soil conditions, and other factors that influence tree growth and survival. This is because the use of neural networks was proposed three decades ago to solve forest management problems by integrating forest knowledge with artificial intelligence (AI). AI greatly benefits sustainability and the preservation of ecosystem values, as increasing disruptions in a changing world can only be managed beyond human intelligence. Furthermore, despite the various DSSs and AI systems used, the appointment of appropriate project managers is crucial to the execution and subsequent success of a project.
  • 44
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Small Extracellular Vesicles in Cardiac Diseases
Effective intercellular communication is essential for cellular and tissue balance maintenance and response to challenges. Cellular communication methods involve direct cell contact or the release of biological molecules to cover short and long distances.
  • 16
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
White Coat in the Domestic Horse
Traits such as shape, size, and color often influence the economic and sentimental value of a horse. Around the world, horses are bred and prized for the colors and markings that make their unique coat patterns stand out from the crowd. The underlying genetic mechanisms determining the color of a horse’s coat can vary greatly in their complexity.
  • 14
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Production of Virus-Like Particles
Virus-like particles based on retroviruses could be a potential envelope for safe and efficient drug formulations. Human endogenous retroviruses would make it possible to overcome the host immune response and deliver drugs to the desired target. PEG10 is a promising candidate that can bind to mRNA because it is secreted like an enveloped virus-like extracellular vesicle. PEG10 is a retrotransposon-derived gene that has been domesticated. 
  • 14
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Immune and Antiviral Effects of Euglena Extracts
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by influenza virus infection, which is managed using vaccines and antiviral drugs. Recently, the antiviral effects of plants and foods have gained attention. Euglena is a motile unicellular alga and eukaryotic photosynthetic microorganism. It has secondary chloroplasts and is a mixotroph able to feed by photosynthesis or phagocytosis.
  • 54
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Salmonids' Immune Response to Myxozoan Parasite Myxobolus cerebralis
Salmonids are affected by the economically significant whirling disease (WD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis. In the past, it was endemic to Eurasia, but it has now spread to different regions of North America, Europe, New Zealand, and South Africa. Among salmonids, rainbow trout is considered the most highly susceptible host. Upon entering to the host’s body, the parasite invades the spine and cranium, resulting in whirling behaviour, a blackened tail, and destruction of cartilage. The disease is characterized by the infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells, primarily lymphocytes and macrophages, with the onset of fibrous tissue infiltration.
  • 59
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Functional Categories of Streptococcus pyogenes Immunomodulating Enzymes
Streptococcus pyogenes, or Group A Streptococcus, is an exclusively human pathogen that causes a wide variety of diseases ranging from mild throat and skin infections to severe invasive disease. The pathogenesis of S. pyogenes infection has been extensively studied, but the pathophysiology, especially of the more severe infections, is still somewhat elusive. One key feature of S. pyogenes is the expression of secreted, surface-associated, and intracellular enzymes that directly or indirectly affect both the innate and adaptive host immune systems. Undoubtedly, S. pyogenes is one of the major bacterial sources for immunomodulating enzymes. Major targets for these enzymes are immunoglobulins that are destroyed or modified through proteolysis or glycan hydrolysis.
  • 55
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Germline POT1 Variants
Protection of Telomere 1 (POT1) was deemed as a novel high-penetrance susceptibility gene to cutaneous melanoma nearly 10 years ago. Thereafter, various cancers have been proposed as associated with germline POT1 variants in the context of the so-called POT1 Predisposition Tumor Syndrome (POT1–TPD). While the key role, and related risks, of the alterations in POT1 in melanoma are established, the correlation between germline POT1 variants and the susceptibility to other cancers partially lacks evidence, due also to the rarity of POT1–TPD. 
  • 45
  • 01 Mar 2024
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