Topic Review
Citric Acid Production by Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast
Citric acid (CA) and its derivatives, including salts and esters, are in high demand across various manufacturing sectors. The fungus Aspergillus niger is mainly used for the commercial production of CA, using sucrose and molasses as the primary carbon sources. Since the 1960s, researchers have been working intensively to introduce Yarrowia lipolytica yeast as an alternative to traditional fungal technology.
  • 18
  • 11 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Processing, Quality and Elemental Safety of Fish
Fish is a food widely produced, marketed and consumed throughout the world. It is a basic component of human nutrition due to its chemical and nutritional composition, but at the same time it is highly perishable and susceptible to contamination throughout the entire food chain, compromising its quality and safety. Fishing and aquaculture products, being perishable, require adequate processing and conservation to maintain their quality and safety as much as possible until their acquisition and final consumption. Over the years, different preservation methods have been developed and used to extend the useful life of fishery products with minimal impact on their nutritional and organoleptic properties, favoring quality and safety that allow the availability of food and protection of public health.
  • 57
  • 10 Apr 2024
Topic Review
The Role of Biomaterials in Optic Neuropathies
Hereditary optic neuropathies (HONs) such as dominant optic atrophy (DOA) and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) are mitochondrial diseases characterized by a degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and are a cause of blindness worldwide. To date, there are only limited disease-modifying treatments for these disorders. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has opened several promising opportunities in the field of HON research and the search for therapeutic approaches. 
  • 35
  • 08 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Blood Reference Values: Welfare Markers in Erinaceus europaeus
Understanding the blood reference values in healthy western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) is crucial, particularly given their expanding range into human habitats where they face contaminants and potential disease agents. As bioindicators of environmental pollution and carriers of zoonotic agents, hedgehogs play a vital role in One Health studies. Their health status serves as an indicator of the well-being of wildlife populations but also directly impacts broader wildlife conservation efforts and human health.
  • 73
  • 08 Apr 2024
Topic Review
The Application of Immortalized Cell Lines
Immortalized cell lines are a powerful tool for biological, biochemical, and biological growth, differentiation, and aging studies. They are also used in immunology, hematology, cancer biology, and toxicology research.
  • 45
  • 07 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Next-Generation Sequencing: Bioinputs for Agriculture Innovation
Bioinputs, a sustainable and potent alternative to chemical products used in agriculture, find a position of radical change with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. These bioinputs, derived from microorganisms, assure the reduction of environmental impact and are able to increase food production. However, proper bioinput development will require the identification of these microorganisms at a level of detail, thereby ensuring a standardized approach. The assessment of potential risks to these microorganisms is thus critical for the safety and efficacy in use, while global collaboration can enable the establishment of standards to be adopted universally.
  • 159
  • 03 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Emerging Therapies and Therapeutics for Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition that frequently develops before the onset of allergic rhinitis or asthma. More than 10% of children are affected by this serious skin condition, which is painful for the sufferers. Recent research has connected the environment, genetics, the skin barrier, drugs, psychological factors, and the immune system to the onset and severity of AD. The causes and consequences of AD and its cellular and molecular origins are reviewed in this paper. The exploration of interleukins and their influence on the immunological pathway in AD has been facilitated by using relevant biomarkers in clinical trials.
  • 30
  • 02 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Landolt Indicator Values in Modern Research
The conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability is essential for human well-being. An important tool for addressing this issue is ecological indicators. 
  • 74
  • 02 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Two-Phase Fermentation Systems for Microbial Production of Terpenes
Microbial cell factories, renowned for their economic and environmental benefits, have emerged as a key trend in academic and industrial areas, particularly in the fermentation of natural compounds. Among these, plant-derived terpenes stand out as a significant class of bioactive natural products. The large-scale production of such terpenes, exemplified by artemisinic acid—a crucial precursor to artemisinin—is now feasible through microbial cell factories. In the fermentation of terpenes, two-phase fermentation technology has been widely applied due to its unique advantages. It facilitates in situ product extraction or adsorption, effectively mitigating the detrimental impact of product accumulation on microbial cells, thereby significantly bolstering the efficiency of microbial production of plant-derived terpenes. 
  • 58
  • 02 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Protein Misfolding in Pregnancy
Protein misfolding disorders are a group of diseases characterized by supra-physiologic accumulation and aggregation of pathogenic proteoforms resulting from improper protein folding and/or insufficiency in clearance mechanisms. Although these processes have been historically linked to neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, evidence linking protein misfolding to other pathologies continues to emerge. Indeed, the deposition of toxic protein aggregates in the form of oligomers or large amyloid fibrils has been linked to type 2 diabetes, various types of cancer, and, in more recent years, to preeclampsia, a life-threatening pregnancy-specific disorder. While extensive physiological mechanisms are in place to maintain proteostasis, processes, such as aging, genetic factors, or environmental stress in the form of hypoxia, nutrient deprivation or xenobiotic exposures can induce failure in these systems. As such, pregnancy, a natural physical state that already places the maternal body under significant physiological stress, creates an environment with a lower threshold for aberrant aggregation. 
  • 70
  • 02 Apr 2024
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