Topic Review
Dermacosmetic Potential of Bioactive Compounds in Coffee
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and its consumption is associated with various health benefits, such as reduction of type II diabetes risk, or protection against neurodegenerative diseases, which have been mostly attributed to two major groups of bioactives present, phenolic compounds and alkaloids. These compounds also possess characteristics with dermacosmetic interest that have been explored over the years in regard to skin health and beauty, as well as hair care.
  • 10
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Chemistry, Occurrence, Properties of Carotenoids
Carotenoids are natural lipophilic pigments and antioxidants that are present in many fruits and vegetables. The consumption of carotenoids is correlated with positive health effects and a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene, α-carotene, γ-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) are essential for the development and maintenance of sight. β-carotene, α-carotene, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and lycopene have high antioxidant activity and promote free radical scavenging, which helps protect against chronic diseases.
  • 10
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Wheat Plants
Wheat represents one of the most important staple food crops worldwide and its genetic improvement is fundamental to meeting the global demand of the growing population. Genetic engineering strategies such as transgenesis and genome editing have then provided the opportunity to improve environmental tolerance traits of agronomic importance in cultivated species. Many of the obtained transgenic wheat lines carried better tolerance to environmental cues. Examples of the most relevant transgenic approaches aimed at improving the tolerance of wheat to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures are reported.
  • 9
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
HIV-1 in Central Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS) is highly compartmentalized and serves as a specific site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Therefore, an understanding of the cellular populations that are infected by HIV or that harbor latent HIV proviruses is imperative in the attempts to address cure strategies, taking into account that HIV infection and latency in the CNS may differ considerably from those in the periphery. HIV replication in the CNS is reported to persist despite prolonged combination antiretroviral therapy due to the inability of the current antiretroviral drugs to penetrate and cross the blood–brain barrier.
  • 9
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Base Editing in Plants
The clustered regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) is a third-generation gene editing technology following ZFNs and TALENs. It has the advantages of being highly efficient, simple, inexpensive, and easily usable. In the CRISPR/Cas9 system, a Cas9-single guide RNA (sgRNA) complex binds to a specific nucleotide sequence with the guidance of the sgRNA and cleaves the target DNA strand, causing a double-strand break (DSB).
  • 5
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Post-Translational Modifications in Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Its main modifiable risk factors are diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Thus, the right approach through lifestyle changes may lead to its prevention. Although cancer is a multi-factorial process, the study of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins associated with CRC has recently gained interest, as inappropriate modification is closely related to the activation of cell signalling pathways involved in carcinogenesis. 
  • 6
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Synthetic Infectious Prion Formation De Novo
Prion diseases are a class of neurodegenerative diseases that are uniquely infectious. Whilst their general replication mechanism is well understood, the components required for the formation and propagation of highly infectious prions are poorly characterized. The protein-only hypothesis posits that the prion protein (PrP) is the only component of the prion; however, additional co-factors are required for its assembly into infectious prions. These can be provided by brain homogenate, but synthetic lipids and non-coding RNA have also been used in vitro.
  • 6
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Fluoride as an Environmental Toxin
Fluorine in its elemental form is practically not found on Earth, but it is present in the ecosphere in the form of fluorine compounds. A growing body of literature suggests that labelling fluorides as an environmental toxin appears to be correct.
  • 10
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Role microRNA in Prostate and Breast Cancer
Micro ribonucleic acids (microRNAs or miRNAs) form a distinct subtype of non-coding RNA and are widely recognized as one of the most significant gene expression regulators in mammalian cells. Mechanistically, the regulation occurs through microRNA binding with its response elements in the 3’-untranslated region of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), resulting in the post-transcriptional silencing of genes, expressing target mRNAs. Compared to small interfering RNAs, microRNAs have more complex regulatory patterns, making them suitable for fine-tuning gene expressions in different tissues. Dysregulation of microRNAs is well known as one of the causative factors in malignant cell growth. Breast cancer (BCa) is the most common cancer in women worldwide and seriously impairs patients’ physical health. Its incidence has been predicted to rise further. Mounting evidence indicates that microRNAs play key roles in tumorigenesis and development. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men. Different microRNAs play an important role in PCa. Early diagnosis of BCa and PCa using microRNAs is very useful for improving individual outcomes in the framework of predictive, preventive, and personalized (3P) medicine, thereby reducing the economic burden.
  • 20
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Richter Syndrome
Richter syndrome (RS) represents the occurrence of an aggressive lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
  • 34
  • 03 Feb 2023
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