Topic Review
Immunity and Metabolism in Aortic Dissection
Aortic dissection (AD) is a cardiovascular disease that seriously endangers the lives of patients. The mortality rate of this disease is high, and the incidence is increasing annually, but the pathogenesis of AD is complicated. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have shown that immune cell infiltration in the media and adventitia of the aorta is a novel hallmark of AD. These cells contribute to changes in the immune microenvironment, which can affect their own metabolism and that of parenchymal cells in the aortic wall, which are essential factors that induce degeneration and remodeling of the vascular wall and play important roles in the formation and development of AD.
  • 212
  • 09 May 2024
Topic Review
Drought
Droughts are an environmental challenge that often cause significant losses of livelihoods the world over. For instance, rain-fed agriculture, livestock production, biodiversity, and several ecosystem services (ES) that are fundamental to human well-being are increasingly threatened by more severe droughts. 
  • 1.1K
  • 30 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Venom Constituents of Rattlesnake Venoms
Venom components are invaluable in biomedical research owing to their specificity and potency. Many of these components exist in two genera of rattlesnakes, Crotalus and Sistrurus, with high toxicity and proteolytic activity variation. 
  • 352
  • 18 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Oxidative Stress and Poultry
A challenge facing the poultry industry is related to the spread of pathogens within commercial farms and, consequently, its high dependence on antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals. Although the inclusion of antibiotics at sub-therapeutical levels in broiler diets has proven to be an efficient strategy through which to suppress the pathogenic bacteria in the gut and enhance animal performance, their usage as growth promoters has been banned in Europe due to concerns regarding the consequences of antibiotic resistance on human health. Under this context, plenty of phytochemicals and antioxidants are being explored in broiler diets.
  • 246
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Avian Influenza A Viruses Modulate the Cellular Cytoskeleton
Influenza is one of the most prevalent causes of death worldwide. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) naturally infect various avian and mammalian hosts, causing seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics with high morbidity and mortality. The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic showed how an animal virus strain could unpredictably acquire the ability to infect humans with high infection transmissibility. Importantly, highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) may cause human infections with exceptionally high mortality. Because these latter infections pose a pandemic potential, analyzing the ecology and evolution features of host expansion helps to identify new broad-range therapeutic strategies. Although IAVs are the prototypic example of molecular strategies that capitalize on their coding potential, the outcome of infection depends strictly on the complex interactions between viral and host cell factors. Most of the studies have focused on the influenza virus, while the contribution of host factors remains largely unknown. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of mammals’ host response to AIV infection is crucial.
  • 270
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
The Role of Biomaterials in Optic Neuropathies
Hereditary optic neuropathies (HONs) such as dominant optic atrophy (DOA) and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) are mitochondrial diseases characterized by a degenerative loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and are a cause of blindness worldwide. To date, there are only limited disease-modifying treatments for these disorders. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has opened several promising opportunities in the field of HON research and the search for therapeutic approaches. 
  • 215
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Valproic Acid in Pregnancy Revisited
Valproic acid (VPA) is a very effective anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer with relatively few side effects. Being an epigenetic modulator, it undergoes clinical trials for the treatment of advanced prostatic and breast cancer. However, in pregnancy, it seems to be the most teratogenic antiepileptic drug. Among the proven effects are congenital malformations in about 10%. The more common congenital malformations are neural tube defects, cardiac anomalies, urogenital malformations including hypospadias, skeletal malformations and orofacial clefts. These effects are dose related; daily doses below 600 mg have a limited teratogenic potential. VPA, when added to other anti-seizure medications, increases the malformations rate. It induces malformations even when taken for indications other than epilepsy, adding to the data that epilepsy is not responsible for the teratogenic effects.
  • 345
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Citric Acid Production by Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast
Citric acid (CA) and its derivatives, including salts and esters, are in high demand across various manufacturing sectors. The fungus Aspergillus niger is mainly used for the commercial production of CA, using sucrose and molasses as the primary carbon sources. Since the 1960s, researchers have been working intensively to introduce Yarrowia lipolytica yeast as an alternative to traditional fungal technology.
  • 270
  • 11 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Processing, Quality and Elemental Safety of Fish
Fish is a food widely produced, marketed and consumed throughout the world. It is a basic component of human nutrition due to its chemical and nutritional composition, but at the same time it is highly perishable and susceptible to contamination throughout the entire food chain, compromising its quality and safety. Fishing and aquaculture products, being perishable, require adequate processing and conservation to maintain their quality and safety as much as possible until their acquisition and final consumption. Over the years, different preservation methods have been developed and used to extend the useful life of fishery products with minimal impact on their nutritional and organoleptic properties, favoring quality and safety that allow the availability of food and protection of public health.
  • 279
  • 10 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Blood Reference Values: Welfare Markers in Erinaceus europaeus
Understanding the blood reference values in healthy western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) is crucial, particularly given their expanding range into human habitats where they face contaminants and potential disease agents. As bioindicators of environmental pollution and carriers of zoonotic agents, hedgehogs play a vital role in One Health studies. Their health status serves as an indicator of the well-being of wildlife populations but also directly impacts broader wildlife conservation efforts and human health.
  • 233
  • 08 Apr 2024
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