Topic Review
Visualizing Collagen Tissue Microarchitecture Using Contrast-Enhanced MicroCT
Micro-computed tomography (microCT) is a common tool for the visualization of the internal composition of organic tissues. Collagen comprises approximately 25–35% of the whole-body protein content in mammals, and the structure and arrangement of collagen fibers contribute significantly to the integrity of tissues. Collagen type I is also frequently used as a key structural component in tissue-engineered and bioprinted tissues. However, the imaging of collagenous tissues is limited by their inherently low X-ray attenuation, which makes them indistinguishable from most other soft tissues. An imaging contrast agent that selectively alters X-ray attenuation is thus essential to properly visualize collagenous tissue using a standard X-ray tube microCT scanner.  The entry provides basic understanding of the physical and chemical aspects of contrast agents that are specific for collagen and some of the key biological factors in selecting these agents for microCT.
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  • 18 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Sustainable Surimi: Demersal Fish Stock Assessment Insights
Demersal fish stock assessment is crucial for the surimi industry's sustainability, offering insights into population dynamics and preventing overexploitation. Methods like the Length-based Spawning Potential Ratio (LBSPR) provide valuable data on fish reproductive potential, aiding sustainable fisheries management. Overcoming challenges in data collection and promoting interdisciplinary research are key to effective conservation strategies, ensuring long-term viability for both the environment and the economy.
  • 20
  • 18 Jul 2024
Topic Review
PacBio SMRT Sequencing for Human Telomere Sequence
This article describes the challenges of sequencing human telomeres and the advantages of using PacBio SMRT sequencing for telomere genome analysis.
  • 69
  • 05 Jul 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Phosphatidyl Inositol 4-Kinases
In recent decades, phosphoinositides (or PIs) have emerged as essential signaling molecules. Despite their low cellular abundance, PIs are found to be involved in various cellular processes, including cell migration, vesicular trafficking, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, cytoskeletal remodeling, autophagy, aging, apoptosis, and cell signaling. Recent studies have shown that aberrant activity of either lipid kinases or phosphatases leads to various medical implications like cancer, diabetes, and microbial infections, suggesting an essential role for these lipid molecules and enzymes in their metabolism. This entry focused on one of the critical enzymes involved in phosphoinositide metabolism: phosphatidyl inositol 4-kinase (PI4-Kinase).
  • 652
  • 02 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Breaking Down the Between Alcohol Addiction Mental Clarity
Did you know that about 20% of American adults have an alcohol use disorder? Alcohol use disorder is a strong and uncontrollable urge to drink. It can lead to severe physical, emotional, and social consequences. It also has a significant impact on mental clarity and well-being.
  • 68
  • 01 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food-Associated Environments
Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a bacterial pathogen responsible for listeriosis, a foodborne illness associated with high rates of mortality (20–30%) and hospitalisation. It is particularly dangerous among vulnerable groups, such as newborns, pregnant women and the elderly. The persistence of this organism in food-associated environments for months to years has been linked to several devastating listeriosis outbreaks. It may also result in significant costs to food businesses and economies. 
  • 316
  • 26 Jun 2024
Topic Review
Uses of Magnetic Fields for Health Applications
Early life on Earth evolved in the contexts of temperature, available elements, and molecules (including water), as well as the biophysical boundary conditions of the planet. The latter include gravity (1 g), exogenous and endogenous radiation from particles from beyond Earth and radioactive elements on Earth, and magnetic fields due to the planet’s magnetic field and local concentrations of molecules such as iron. Humans and other animals, plants, and microorganisms have been exposed to a variety of magnetic fields other than the geomagnetic field of Earth and deposits of ferro materials. Magnetic fields, static or electromagnetic, have been used in attempts to improve outcomes for the repair of a variety of tissues.
  • 485
  • 19 Jun 2024
Topic Review
The term “tumoroid” means “tumor-like organoid”: tumoroids typically derive from primary tumors harvested from oncological patients and they can mimic human tumor microenvironment (TME); nowadays, they are considered a promising tool for cost-effective studies on novel anticancer drugs to be used in precision medicine in the field of oncology.
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  • 18 Jun 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
The Evolutionary System of the Biosphere and the Metameric Concept of Its Evolution: From the Past to the Future
We offer a detailed description of our previously published new concept of the evolution of the biosphere as an integral system of its states over time, united by development trends. The structure of the biosphere is considered as a hierarchical fractal system, and the elementary unit of the biosphere is an ecosystem. The fractal structure of the biosphere corresponds to the emergent principle: each lower level is an element of a more complex system and has its own properties. The proposed concept of biosphere evolution is based on the general categories of dialectics: states and interstates, continuity and discreteness, reproducibility and uniqueness. The evolutionary history of the biosphere is a metameric picture of changing states and interstates. The most important feature of the biosphere organization in space–time is a complex system of continua. The development of an integral biospheric system occurs in a time continuum: in the biosphere, the differences between the early and subsequent states are quite significant and obvious. Moreover, these differences are associated with fundamental complications, development, which is, in fact, evolution. The states of the biosphere in certain periods are linked by trends that form an evolutionary system. Continuing states, when the system remains self-identical for a long period, are replaced by new states through interstates. Based on the principle of actualism, the problems of the biosphere’s future and evolutionary trends of the biosphere under anthropogenic impact are considered.
  • 288
  • 28 May 2024
Kadir Mısıroğlu
Türk Bilgesi Kadir Mısıroğlu (𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰜:𐰋𐰃𐰠𐰏𐰾𐰃:𐰴𐰑𐰼:𐰢𐰃𐰽𐰺𐰆𐰍𐰞𐰆) (24 January 1933 – 5 May 2019) was a Turkish historian, lawyer, writer, and publisher.[1][2][3] [4][5] His character is integrated with the fez. Radical Islamist and Ottomanist. He is known for his outspoken stance against Mustafa Kemal's reforms and Kemalism.[6][7] Ka
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  • 23 May 2024
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