Topic Review
Τhe “GPS/GNSS on Boat” Technique
The opening up of the global positioning system (GPS) for non-military uses provided a new impetus for the study of the sea surface topography (SST) and geoid, especially in coastal areas which are important from the viewpoint of the climate crisis. The application of the “GPS/GNSS on boat” method, as an alternative to traditional (indirect and direct) methods, has provided detailed SST maps in coastal and oceanic areas with an accuracy of up to few centimeters.
  • 30
  • 06 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Zonguldak basin
The Zonguldak basin of North Western Turkey has been mined for coal since the late 1800s. The basin takes its name after Zonguldak, Turkey, and is approximately 41° N. The Zonguldak basin is the only basin in Turkey with minable coal deposits. Geographically, the Zonguldak is roughly elliptical in shape with its long axis oriented roughly SW – NE, and is adjacent to the Black Sea. Three main regions have been recognized in the Zonguldak basin. These are the Armutcuk, the Zonguldak, and the Amasra from west to east respectively.
  • 173
  • 25 May 2022
Topic Review
ZnO Nanoparticles and Wheat and Maize
The zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO NP) is a commonly used metal oxide ENPs finding application as sunscreens and cosmetics, biosensors, and in solar cells, etc. Presently, many kinds of metal oxide NPs have been applied in agriculture, specifically in fertilization and plant protection in abiotic and biotic stress conditions.
  • 186
  • 22 Dec 2021
Topic Review
ZnO and TiO2 Green Synthesis
Over the last two decades, oxide nanostructures have been continuously evaluated and used in many technological applications. The advancement of the controlled synthesis approach to design desired morphology is a fundamental key to the discipline of material science and nanotechnology. These nanostructures can be prepared via different physical and chemical methods; however, a green synthesis approach is a promising way to produce these nanostructures with desired properties with time and energy savings and/or less use of hazardous chemicals. In this regard, ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures are prominent candidates for various applications given their thermal stability, non-toxicity and cost-effective. 
  • 802
  • 06 May 2021
Topic Review
Zinc Deficiency
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range. However, since a decrease in the serum concentration is only detectable after long-term or severe depletion, serum zinc is not a reliable biomarker for zinc status. Common symptoms include increased rates of diarrhea. Zinc deficiency affects the skin and gastrointestinal tract; brain and central nervous system, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems. Zinc deficiency in humans is caused by reduced dietary intake, inadequate absorption, increased loss, or increased body system use. The most common cause is reduced dietary intake. In the U.S., the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 8 mg/day for women and 11 mg/day for men. The highest concentration of dietary zinc is found in oysters, meat, beans, and nuts. Increasing the amount of zinc in the soil and thus in crops and animals is an effective preventive measure. Zinc deficiency may affect up to 2 billion people worldwide.
  • 132
  • 27 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Zero-Waste City Construction in Xuzhou
The rapidly growing output of solid waste has brought tremendous pressure to urban development. China launched an action plan known as “Zero-waste city” (ZWC), that refers to an urban development model aimed at reducing the generation of and enhancing the recycling of solid waste, in order to alleviate environmental impacts. Xuzhou, as one of the 11 pilot cities selected by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, is the chosen object of this study. Based on the analysis of material flow and the national policy objectives, five main approaches are put forward in line with the characteristics of Xuzhou, and good results have been achieved in solid waste management through practical experience.
  • 254
  • 15 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Zero Solid Waste in the Sedimentary Phosphate Industry
The phosphate industry produces huge volumes of waste (hundred million tons per year). These wastes are generally surface landfilled, leading to significant environmental impacts and a large footprint. All the waste streams generated during the life cycle of phosphoric acid production going from the extraction of phosphate rock to its enrichment and transformation are considered. Great circularity opportunities have been identified and they aim (i) to recover the residual phosphorus and other critical minerals and metals, and (ii) to consider phosphate wastes as alternative resources in the civil engineering and building sectors. The purpose is to shift from linear thinking to circular thinking where synergy between different mining and other industries is highly encouraged. 
  • 241
  • 16 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Zero Liquid Discharge System for the Tannery Industry
The tannery industry is characterized by the consumption of a large quantity of water, around 30–40 m3 for processing 1000 kg of hide or skin. This amount becomes wastewater, containing about 300 kg of different chemicals, mainly refractory organic compounds, with high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved salts (TDS), chromium, and evolution of toxic gases, such as ammonia and sulfides, etc. The remaining tanning chemicals are released as effluent having high resistance against biological degradation, becoming a serious environmental issue. The Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) system serves to ensure zero water emission, as well as treatment facilities by recycling, recovery, and reuse of the treated wastewater using advanced cleanup technology. The international scenario shows the implementation of ZLD thanks to pressure from regulatory agencies. The ZLD system consists of a pre-treatment system with conventional physicochemical treatment, tertiary treatment, softening of the treated effluent, reverse osmosis (RO) treatment for desalination, and thermal evaporation of the saline reject from RO to separate the salts. By adopting this system, water consumption is reduced. Moreover, ZLD also becomes effective in disaster mitigation in areas where the tannery industry is a strong economic actor. 
  • 316
  • 27 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Zeolite/Pharmaceuticals System
Zeolites belong to aluminosilicate microporous solids, with strong and diverse catalytic activity, which makes them applicable in almost every kind of industrial process, particularly thanks to their eco-friendly profile. Another crucial characteristic of zeolites is their tremendous adsorption capability. Therefore, it is self-evident that the widespread use of zeolites is in environmental protection, based primarily on the adsorption capacity of substances potentially harmful to the environment, such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, or other industry pollutants. On the other hand, zeolites are also recognized as drug delivery systems (DDS) carriers for numerous pharmacologically active agents. The enhanced bioactive ability of DDS zeolite as a drug carrying nanoplatform is confirmed, making this system more specific and efficient, compared to the drug itself. These two applications of zeolite, in fact, illustrate the importance of (ir)reversibility of the adsorption process. 
  • 204
  • 11 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt
The Zagros fold and thrust belt (Zagros FTB) is an approximately 1,800-kilometre (1,100 mi) long zone of deformed crustal rocks, formed in the foreland of the collision between the Arabian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It is host to one of the world's largest petroleum provinces, containing about 49% of the established hydrocarbon reserves in fold and thrust belts and about 7% of all reserves globally.
  • 112
  • 08 Nov 2022
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