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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Xiang Jiang
Definition: Acoustic emission (AE) spectroscopy has become the method of choice in many fieldsbecause it is highly sensitive. For example, the AE system constructed by the Vallen company, Germany, has a sampling rate that can reach up to 10 MHz, an arrival time resolution of 100 ns, and an energy resolution of 1.8 × 10−18V2s (i.e., in the attojoule regime, aJ) referred to sensor signal at 34 dB preamplifier gain. A previous study showed simultaneous measurements of the avalanche of stress and AE during mechanically induced twin boundary motion in a shape memory alloy.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Scott Dwyer
Definition: Electric vehicle (EV) adoption is growing worldwide with increasing market pull from consumers and market push from manufacturers of vehicles and charging equipment, as well as others in the supply chain. Governments have begun developing policies to support EV uptake and local governments, in particular, are examining what role they should play. In Australia, a large country with low population density, EV uptake has been slower in comparison to other similar economies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Attilio Converti
Definition: Bacterial cellulose membranes have been shown to be efficient as filters for the removal of various contaminants, including biological and chemical agents or heavy metals. Therefore, their use could make an important contribution to bio-based technological development in the circular economy. Moreover, they can be used to produce new materials for industry, taking into consideration current environmental preservation policies aimed at a more efficient use of energy.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jul 2021
Definition: Chile is a country that is highly dependent on importing energy, particularly fossil hydrocarbons, even though it possesses a variety of energy resources that are relatively well distributed. Around 24% of the country’s power grid comes from forest-based biomass, with firewood being the most-used energy source, mainly for heating and cooking purposes: 97% of firewood is used for heating, and the other 3% is used for domestic water heating and, in some cases, for cooking food. Given that firewood is used by thousands of people during the year, wood burning has had severe social and environmental consequences in densely populated cities such as Temuco. These consequences are mainly due to biomass combustion, which is an important source of particulate matter stemming from the incomplete combustion of components like cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, in addition to temperature-produced changes caused by combustion from uncontrolled sources.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jun 2021
Submitted by: AHMET AYSAN
Definition: Blockchain is an open-source technology that excludes the traditional third parties by relying on collective verification, thus offering a great alternative in terms of costs, traceability, security, and speed. When two financial entities such as banks receive a request to transfer money from one account to another, they have to update the balances of their respective customers. This costly and time-consuming coordination and synchronization exercise can be simplified on a blockchain by using a single ledger of transactions reflecting a single version of records instead of two different databases. Blockchain technology offers a myriad of value through a frictionless process of immutable and transparent records and through converting assets into digital tokens (i.e., tokenization) with smart contracts.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Agnieszka Kuras
Definition: The urban land cover consists of very complex physical materials and surfaces that are constantly having anthropological impacts. The urban surface types are a mosaic of seminatural surfaces such as grass, trees, bare soil, water bodies, and human-made materials of diverse age and composition, such as asphalt, concrete, roof tiles for energy conservation and fire danger, and generally impervious surfaces for urban flooding studies and pollution. The complexity of urban analysis also depends on the scale chosen and its purpose.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Yu Peng
Definition: Global drylands are expanding due to climate change, threatening global food security (FS), especially in Africa. Eastern Africa has 328 million hectares of drylands, 6% of which is covered by crops; most crops are rained on, and irrigated land accounts for only 5 million hectares (22%). In Ethiopia, 75% of the landmass is categorized as dryland, the majority of which experiences high risks of land degradation, natural hazards, and water and food shortages.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Asvina Sunassee
Definition: The existing state of the world climate creates the need for an educational programme that incorporates effective proposals for the environment that can be practically implemented. The present environmental education literature has changed due to new study paradigms. Understanding how students relate to nature, how their personal beliefs and behaviours are influenced, and how their actions are affected can provide an increased understanding of how they can contribute meaningfully to global objectives. This paper aims to analyse educational research papers published in the area of environmental art education in order to find the factor with the greatest effect and illuminate how they can help to improve the measures implemented.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 May 2021
Submitted by: Tito Fernandes
Definition: Fermented foods and beverages are generally defined as products made by microbial organisms and enzymatic conversions of major and minor food components. Further to the commonly-recognized effects of nutrition on the digestive health and well-being, there is now strong evidence for the impact of fermented foods and beverages, produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms, on general health, namely their significance on the gut microbiota balance and brain functionality.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Xinyi Cao
Definition: The influence radius was originally used in the calculation of some hydrogeological parameters but, owing to various coincidences that occur in practical situations, it has been considered that the parameterized influence radius is reasonable and convenient for calculations pertaining to actual production problems, and this misconception has perpetuated. However, by considering the continuity principle of flow, it can be proven that the parameterized influence radius does not exist. The influence radius is essentially the distance in the time–distance problem in physics and is influenced by the hydrogeological conditions and pumping conditions, which is different from the hydrogeological parameters reflecting the natural properties of aquifers, such as the porosity, specific yield, and hydraulic conductivity.
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