Gastrointestinal disease is a very common and frequently occurring disease, with a wide range of types and a total incidence of about 20% of the population. The cause of gastrointestinal disease is the imbalance between the protective mechanism and the injury mechanism of the human body. While traditional medicine kills harmful bacteria in the stomach, it also kills the beneficial bacteria necessary for the stomach. Although the symptoms are alleviated and inflammation is eliminated, the reduction of beneficial bacteria reduces the gastrointestinal immunity. Once the drug is stopped, it is easy to re-infect. There are many reasons for stomach problems, including genetics, environment, diet, drugs, bacterial infections, etc., as well as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This collection of entries aims to collect various items related to the topic of gastrointestinal diseases, such as clinical care, case cases, disease research, etc., to help people increase their knowledge and understanding of this common disease

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Topic Review
Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the gastric mucosa and is associated with various gastrointestinal disorders. H. pylori is a pervasive pathogen, infecting nearly 50% of the world’s population, and presents a substantial concern due to its link with gastric cancer, ranking as the third most common cause of global cancer-related mortality. 
  • 186
  • 07 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Probiotic Bacillus subtilis in Human Applications
Bacillus subtilis has been used for more than 50 years in many different industrial applications, including farming, precision fermentation, and probiotic supplements. It is particularly attractive as a probiotic because of its ability to form shelf-stable, acid-resistant spores that lend to diverse applications in the food system. B. subtilis is the most ubiquitous species of the genus and can be isolated from a broad variety of environments including animal and human gastrointestinal (GI) tracts.
  • 187
  • 02 Feb 2024
Topic Review
MAFLD and Chronic Viral Hepatitis
Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has now affected nearly one-third of the global population and has become the number one cause of chronic liver disease in the world because of the obesity pandemic. Chronic hepatitis resulting from hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) remain significant challenges to liver health even in the 21st century. The co-existence of MAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis can markedly alter the disease course of individual diseases and can complicate the management of each of these disorders. A thorough understanding of the pathobiological interactions between MAFLD and these two chronic viral infections is crucial for appropriately managing these patients.
  • 131
  • 30 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Gastrointestinal Disease Classification
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases are on the rise in the world. These diseases can have fatal consequences if not diagnosed in the initial stages. WCE (wireless capsule endoscopy) is the advanced technology used to inspect gastrointestinal diseases such as ulcerative-colitis, polyps, esophagitis, and ulcers. WCE produces thousands of frames for a single patient’s procedure for which manual examination is tiresome, time-consuming, and prone to error; therefore, an automated procedure is needed.
  • 116
  • 26 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Viral Liver Disease and Intestinal Gut–Liver Axis
The intestinal microbiota is closely related to liver diseases via the intestinal barrier and bile secretion to the gut. Impairment of the barrier can translocate microbes or their components to the liver where they can contribute to liver damage and fibrosis.
  • 115
  • 26 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS)
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a malabsorptive condition that is most often caused by a massive resection of the small intestine. Its prevalence is 3–4 per million and occurs in about 15% of adult patients undergoing an intestinal resection, either massive (3/4) or from multiple sequential resections (1/4). SBS and intestinal failure (IF) are not necessarily synonymous. Intestinal failure describes the state when an individual’s gastrointestinal function is inadequate to maintain his or her nutrient and hydration status without intravenous or enteral supplementation. 
  • 121
  • 22 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Adults
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammation of the pancreas caused by the activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreatic tissue. The main causes of AP are cholelithiasis and alcohol abuse; less commonly, it can be caused by drugs, with a prevalence of up to 5%. Causal associations between drugs and pancreatitis are largely based on case reports or case series with limited evidence.
  • 198
  • 09 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Nutritional Strategies to Mitigate Post-Weaning Challenges in Pigs
The pig-farming industry faces significant challenges in ensuring the health and growth of piglets, particularly during the weaning phase. This critical period involves multiple stressors, such as environmental changes, dietary shifts, and social separation, which can adversely affect the piglet’s digestive health, immune system, and overall well-being.
  • 182
  • 02 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Gut Microbiota and Dendritic Cells in Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignancy that manifests in serial stages and has been observed to have an escalating incidence in modern societies, causing a significant global health problem. The development of CRC is influenced by various exogenous factors, including lifestyle, diet, nutrition, environment, and microbiota, that can affect host cells, including immune cells.
  • 337
  • 12 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Beneficial Effects of Probiotic Supplementation in Pigs
The rise in antimicrobial-resistant pathogens has necessitated a decrease in the use of antibiotics and antimicrobials in commercial pig farming. Consequently, there has been a surge in research to pinpoint alternative dietary interventions that can contribute to the health and performance of pigs. The pivotal role of the gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota in animal health and performance is gaining greater recognition. Therefore, enhancing the GIT microbiota, particularly the pioneer microbiota in young pigs, has become a central objective. The supplementation of probiotics emerges as a practical strategy to introduce beneficial bacteria into the pig's GIT, promoting improved animal health and performance.
  • 349
  • 11 Dec 2023
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