Gastrointestinal disease is a very common and frequently occurring disease, with a wide range of types and a total incidence of about 20% of the population. The cause of gastrointestinal disease is the imbalance between the protective mechanism and the injury mechanism of the human body. While traditional medicine kills harmful bacteria in the stomach, it also kills the beneficial bacteria necessary for the stomach. Although the symptoms are alleviated and inflammation is eliminated, the reduction of beneficial bacteria reduces the gastrointestinal immunity. Once the drug is stopped, it is easy to re-infect. There are many reasons for stomach problems, including genetics, environment, diet, drugs, bacterial infections, etc., as well as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This collection of entries aims to collect various items related to the topic of gastrointestinal diseases, such as clinical care, case cases, disease research, etc., to help people increase their knowledge and understanding of this common disease

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Topic Review
Histological Healing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two types of chronic intestinal disorders: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In long-standing ulcerative colitis disease activity, histological persistent inflammation has been linked to an increased risk of relapse, and long-term corticosteroid use, even when endoscopic remission is reached. In Crohn’s disease, the discontinuous nature of lesions and transmural inflammation have limited the standardized histological assessment. The current evidence from research proposes that besides clinical and endoscopic healing, the achievement of histological healing constitutes an endpoint to assess disease activity and remission in IBD patients concerning better long-term disease outcomes. Histological alterations may persist even in the absence of endoscopic lesions. For these reasons, new advanced techniques promise to revolutionize the field of IBD by improving the endoscopic and histologic assessment, disease characterization, and ultimately patient care, with an established role in daily practice for objective assessment of lesions. 
  • 312
  • 01 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Endoscope Capsules
There are multiple benefits offered by capsule endoscopy (CE). First, the patients do not need sedation to undergo a CE analysis. The CE can analyze the entire GI tract from the esophagus, passing through the stomach, until the small intestine, which could not be properly analyzed through conventional endoscopy. The capsule has the size of a conventional vitamin capsule, and it can be easily swallowed, moving naturally through the GI tract until excretion. This fact indicates a painless procedure compared with the discomfort suffered by the long endoscopy sessions.
  • 321
  • 28 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Immunotherapy in MS-Stable Colorectal Cancer
Immunotherapy is an innovative treatment that is highly effective against certain cancers, such as skin and lung cancer. However, for colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent cancers, it does not benefit most patients. Recent research suggests that by treating liver metastases first, immunotherapy might become effective for those with colorectal cancer.
  • 187
  • 22 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Elements in the Immune System of a Newborn
The initial exposure to a microbial world for an infant born vaginally is from the mother’s microbiota, influenced by maternal diet, level of stress, smoking history and living conditions. The intestinal microbiome in the first 2–3 years of life participates in the programming and development of the gut immune system, important to immune reactivity and general health as well as to response to infectious organisms and vaccines resulting in protective immunity. The intestinal microbiome and the immune system early in life can put infants on a long-term path to health or lead to medical and allergic disorders that can persist into adulthood.
  • 255
  • 14 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Algae Food Products as a Healthcare Solution
Diseases such as obesity; cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction and stroke; digestive diseases such as celiac disease; certain types of cancer and osteoporosis are related to food. On the other hand, as the world’s population increases, the ability of the current food production system to produce food consistently is at risk. As a result, intensive agriculture has contributed to climate change and a major environmental impact. Research is, therefore, needed to find new sustainable food sources. One of the most promising sources of sustainable food raw materials is macroalgae. Algae are crucial to solving this nutritional deficiency because they are abundant in bioactive substances that have been shown to combat diseases such as hyperglycemia, diabetes, obesity, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. 
  • 285
  • 10 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Galectin-1 in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Galectin-1 is a unique and critical member of the galectin family, characterized by its ability to bind to β-galactoside-containing glycoconjugates. 
  • 332
  • 07 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Molecular Mechanisms and Signaling Pathways in Gastric Cancer
Gastric cancer (GC) is common but often diagnosed late. Advances in chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy offer promising treatments. Perioperative chemotherapy is now the standard for resectable gastric cancer. Progress has also been made in treating metastatic disease using targeted immunotherapies. Molecular biomarkers such as programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1), microsatellite instability (MSI), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) guide personalized treatment approaches. 
  • 558
  • 03 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Probiotics and Probiotic-like Agents against Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis
Cancer chemotherapy has allowed many patients to survive, but not without risks derived from its adverse effects. Drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, methotrexate, and others, as well as different drug combinations trigger intestinal mucositis that may cause or contribute to anorexia, pain, diarrhea, weight loss, systemic infections, and even death. Dysbiosis is a hallmark of chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis and diarrhea, and, therefore, strategies aimed at modulating intestinal microbiota may be useful to counteract and prevent those dreadful effects.
  • 409
  • 25 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Intraoperative Imaging in Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery
Hepatopancreatobiliary surgery belongs to one of the most complex fields of general surgery. An intricate and vital anatomy is accompanied by difficult distinctions of tumors from fibrosis and inflammation; the identification of precise tumor margins; or small, even disappearing, lesions on currently available imaging. The routine implementation of ultrasound use shifted the possibilities in the operating room, yet more precision is necessary to achieve negative resection margins. Modalities utilizing fluorescent-compatible dyes have proven their role in hepatopancreatobiliary surgery, although this is not yet a routine practice, as there are many limitations. Modalities, such as photoacoustic imaging or 3D holograms, are emerging but are mostly limited to preclinical settings. There is a need to identify and develop an ideal contrast agent capable of differentiating between malignant and benign tissue and to report on the prognostic benefits of implemented intraoperative imaging in order to navigate clinical translation.
  • 226
  • 23 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Hypercoagulability in End-Stage Liver Disease
End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is associated with significant changes in a patient’s coagulation profile. These changes are unique in that they involve all branches of the coagulation system. The hypercoagulability is associated with significant endothelial dysfunction (ED) due to nitric oxide dysregulation.
  • 299
  • 16 Oct 2023
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