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Ammonia is the second-largest global chemical products, utilized as agricultural fertilizer, food production, industrial materials, refrigerants, and additives. Recently, the utilization of ammonia as the energy carrier (secondary energy source) has attracted many interests, due to its high volumetric hydrogen density, low storage pressure, high stability for long-term storage, high auto-ignition temperature, low condensation pressure, and lower gas density than air. in general, ammonia production includes the currently adopted thermochemical (Haber–Bosch), electrochemical, and photochemical cycle processes.
20 May 2022
Space Vector PWM Techniques
This entry elaborates the basic concept of space vector Pulse Width modulation technique for a three-phase voltage source inverter. Why space vector Pulse width modulation (PWM) is required and how it is implemented in the simulation model, is described in the entry. A number of PWM scheme is used to obtain variable voltage and frequency supply from a power converter. The most widely used PWM schemes for three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) are carrier-based sinusoidal PWM and space vector PWM (SVPWM). There is an increasing trend of using space vector PWM (SVPWM) because of their easier digital realization and better dc bus utilization. This entry focuses on step by step development of MATLAB/SIMULINK model of SVPWM. Firstly the model of a three-phase VSI is discussed based on space vector representation. Next simulation model of SVPWM is obtained using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation results are also provided.
16 Jun 2022
Hydrogen Storage and Transportation
In the current hydrocarbon economy, transportation is fueled primarily by petroleum. Burning of hydrocarbon fuels emits carbon dioxide and other pollutants. The supply of economically usable hydrocarbon resources in the world is limited, and the demand of hydrocarbon fuels is increasing, particularly in China, India and other countries. Proponents of a world-scale hydrogen economy argue that hydrogen can be environmentally cleaner source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications, without release of pollutants (such as particulate matter) or carbon dioxide at the point of end use. A recent analysis asserted that “most of the hydrogen supply chain pathways would release significantly less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than would gasoline used in hybrid electric vehicles” and that significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions would be possible if carbon capture or carbon sequestration methods were utilized at the site od energy or hydrogen production. Hydrogen storage can be distributed continuously in pipelines or batch wise by ships, trucks, railway or airplanes. All batch transportation requires a storage system also pipelines can be used as pressure storage system. Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per weight of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environment friendly. But two difficulties with hydrogen are that hydrogen is just an energy carrier and has a low critical temperature of 35 K, i.e., hydrogen is a gas at room temperature. For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage system is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored by six different methods and phenomena: high pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T< 100K), absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), chemically bond in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), oxidation of reactive metals e.g., Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. These metals easily react with water to the corresponding hydroxide and liberate the hydrogen from the water. Finally, the metal hydroxides can be thermally reduced to the metals in a solar furnace. In conclusion, routes for the transmission and storage of hydrogen for chemical processes, and hydrogen-based energy systems are increasing their establishment. Here, these routes are described, considering their attractions and difficulties.
18 Jun 2021
Sensors for Health Monitoring
The use of wearable equipment and sensing devices to monitor physical activities, whether for well-being, sports monitoring, or medical rehabilitation, has expanded rapidly due to the evolution of sensing techniques, cheaper integrated circuits, and the development of connectivity technologies. In this scenario, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of sensors and systems for rehabilitation and health monitoring. Although we know the increasing importance of data processing techniques, our focus was on analyzing the implementation of sensors and biomedical applications. Although many themes overlap, we organized this review based on three groups: Sensors in Healthcare, Home Medical Assistance, and Continuous Health Monitoring; Systems and Sensors in Physical Rehabilitation; and Assistive Systems.
19 Feb 2021
Modular Multilevel Converters
A modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an advanced voltage source converter applicable to a wide range of medium and high-voltage applications. It has competitive advantages such as quality output performance, high modularity, simple scalability, and low voltage and current rating demand for the power switches. The generalized configuration of a three-phase MMC is comprised of a DC terminal, an AC terminal, and a converting kernel involving three phase legs. Each leg/phase has two symmetric arms referred to as the upper arm and lower arm. The upper arm and lower arm contain a group of identical submodules connected in series together with a chock inductor to suppress high-frequency components in the arm current. The research interests of MMCs are primarily associated with the topologies, mathematical modeling, output voltage and current control, submodule balancing control, circulating current control, and modulation methods. And the incorporation of wideband gap (WBG) semiconductors are prospected to facilitate the MMC application with further advantages of high-voltage and high-power operations, low power losses, high efficiency, improved reliability, and reduced module size and cooling system.
18 Aug 2021
EEG Power Spectrum
The electrical activity of the brain reflected in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is determined by neurons, glia cells, and the blood-brain barrier, which is mainly caused by nerve cells.
30 Oct 2020
TCP-based Congestion Control Algorithms
In today’s data networks, the main protocol used to ensure reliable communications is the transmission control protocol (TCP). The TCP performance is largely determined by the used congestion control (CC) algorithm, which main purpose is to avoid the congestion of the network that can be caused by a large burst of data traffic. TCP CC algorithms have evolved over the past three decades and a large number of CC algorithm variations have been developed to accommodate various communication network environments. Considering the importance of CC in communication networks, the fundamentals of the TCP as the main transport layer protocol and CC process have been explained in detail. Also, an encyclopedic overview of the most popular single-flow and multi-flow TCP CC algorithms with corresponding alternatives has been present. Future directions in the possible improvement of CC algorithms for implementation in complex heterogeneous networks composed of wired and wireless elements are lastly discussed in this encyclopedic work.
21 Jul 2021
Thermoelectric Generators: Progress and Applications
A thermoelectric effect is a physical phenomenon consisting of the direct conversion of heat into electrical energy (Seebeck effect) or inversely from electrical current into heat (Peltier effect) without moving mechanical parts. In this review, state-of-the-art thermoelectric generators, applications and recent progress are reported.
27 Aug 2020
Methods of Residual Stress Measurement
This entry introduces several commonly used residual stress measurement methods.
01 Nov 2020
CCR Model (DEA)
The first Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (1978) under the assumption of a Constant Returns to Scale production technology, i.e., when an increase in the production resources results in a proportional increase in the output.
30 May 2021
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