Topic Review
Path Planning and Optimization Techniques
The optimization algorithms for pathfinding for ground robotics [20,21,22,23,24], aerial vehicles [25,26,27], and underwater vehicles [28,29] includes a wide range of applications. The most well-known applications for autonomous vehicles are obstacle avoidance, path planning, localization, navigation, sensing, and communication, which works on pre-essential maps related to the environment; they also play a vital role in communication relay, aviation industry for surveillance, and loitering dominated missions. 
  • 50570
  • 09 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Ammonia Production
Ammonia is the second-largest global chemical products, utilized as agricultural fertilizer, food production, industrial materials, refrigerants, and additives. Recently, the utilization of ammonia as the energy carrier (secondary energy source) has attracted many interests, due to its high volumetric hydrogen density, low storage pressure, high stability for long-term storage, high auto-ignition temperature, low condensation pressure, and lower gas density than air. in general, ammonia production includes the currently adopted thermochemical (Haber–Bosch), electrochemical, and photochemical cycle processes. 
  • 41839
  • 20 May 2022
Topic Review
Space Vector PWM Techniques
This entry elaborates the basic concept of space vector Pulse Width modulation technique for a three-phase voltage source inverter. Why space vector Pulse width modulation (PWM) is required and how it is implemented in the simulation model, is described in the entry.  A number of PWM scheme is used to obtain variable voltage and frequency supply from a power converter. The most widely used PWM schemes for three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) are carrier-based sinusoidal PWM and space vector PWM (SVPWM). There is an increasing trend of using space vector PWM (SVPWM) because of their easier digital realization and better dc bus utilization. This entry focuses on step by step development of MATLAB/SIMULINK model of SVPWM. Firstly the model of a three-phase VSI is discussed based on space vector representation. Next simulation model of SVPWM is obtained using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation results are also provided. 
  • 29386
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a group of spatially dispersed sensor nodes, which are interconnected by using wireless communication. The purpose of this entry is to provide an up-to-date presentation of both traditional and most recent applications of WSNs and hopefully not only enable the comprehension of this scientific area but also facilitate the perception of novel applications.
  • 25088
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
BMW 3 Series (E46)
The BMW E46 is the fourth generation of the BMW 3 Series, which was produced from 1997 to 2006. The body styles of the range are: All-wheel drive, last available in the E30 3 Series, was reintroduced for the E46 on the 325xi, 330xi and 330xd models. The E46 was the first 3 Series to be available with an engine using Valvetronic (variable valve lift). Various electronic features were also introduced to the 3 Series in the E46 generation, including satellite navigation, electronic brake-force distribution, rain-sensing wipers and LED tail-lights. Following the introduction of the E90 3 Series sedans in late 2004, the E46 began to be phased out. However the E46 coupé and convertible body styles remained in production until 2006. The E46 M3 is powered by the S54 straight-six engine with either a 6-speed manual or a 6-speed SMG-II transmission. The M3 was introduced in late 2000 and was produced in coupé and convertible body styles only.
  • 22297
  • 03 Nov 2022
Topic Review Video
Modular Multilevel Converters
A modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an advanced voltage source converter applicable to a wide range of medium and high-voltage applications. It has competitive advantages such as quality output performance, high modularity, simple scalability, and low voltage and current rating demand for the power switches. The generalized configuration of a three-phase MMC is comprised of a DC terminal, an AC terminal, and a converting kernel involving three phase legs. Each leg/phase has two symmetric arms referred to as the upper arm and lower arm. The upper arm and lower arm contain a group of identical submodules connected in series together with a chock inductor to suppress high-frequency components in the arm current.  The research interests of MMCs are primarily associated with the topologies, mathematical modeling, output voltage and current control, submodule balancing control, circulating current control, and modulation methods. And the incorporation of wideband gap (WBG) semiconductors are prospected to facilitate the MMC application with further advantages of high-voltage and high-power operations, low power losses, high efficiency, improved reliability, and reduced module size and cooling system.
  • 16617
  • 18 Aug 2021
Topic Review
TCP-based Congestion Control Algorithms
In today’s data networks, the main protocol used to ensure reliable communications is the transmission control protocol (TCP). The TCP performance is largely determined by the used congestion control (CC) algorithm, which main purpose is to avoid the congestion of the network that can be caused by a large burst of data traffic. TCP CC algorithms have evolved over the past three decades and a large number of CC algorithm variations have been developed to accommodate various communication network environments. Considering the importance of CC in communication networks, the fundamentals of the TCP as the main transport layer protocol and CC process have been explained in detail. Also, an encyclopedic overview of the most popular single-flow and multi-flow TCP CC algorithms with corresponding alternatives has been present. Future directions in the possible improvement of CC algorithms for implementation in complex heterogeneous networks composed of wired and wireless elements are lastly discussed in this encyclopedic work. 
  • 14807
  • 21 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Sensors for Health Monitoring
The use of wearable equipment and sensing devices to monitor physical activities, whether for well-being, sports monitoring, or medical rehabilitation, has expanded rapidly due to the evolution of sensing techniques, cheaper integrated circuits, and the development of connectivity technologies. In this scenario, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of sensors and systems for rehabilitation and health monitoring. Although we know the increasing importance of data processing techniques, our focus was on analyzing the implementation of sensors and biomedical applications. Although many themes overlap, we organized this review based on three groups: Sensors in Healthcare, Home Medical Assistance, and Continuous Health Monitoring; Systems and Sensors in Physical Rehabilitation; and Assistive Systems.
  • 14183
  • 19 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, have come in a great diversity of several applications such as military, construction, image and video mapping, medical, search and rescue, parcel delivery, hidden area exploration, oil rigs and power line monitoring, precision farming, wireless communication and aerial surveillance. The drone industry has been getting significant attention as a model of manufacturing, service and delivery convergence, introducing synergy with the coexistence of different emerging domains. 
  • 14088
  • 27 Jul 2022
Topic Review
List of Qualcomm Snapdragon Systems-on-chip
This is a list of Qualcomm Snapdragon chips. Snapdragon is a family of mobile system on a chip (SoC) made by Qualcomm for use in smartphones, tablets, laptops, 2-in-1 PCs, smartwatches , and smartbooks devices.
  • 13462
  • 19 Oct 2022
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