Topic Review
Glucocorticoids in Alcoholic Hepatitis
Alcoholic hepatitis is a major health and economic burden worldwide. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the only first-line drugs recommended to treat severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH), with limited short-term efficacy and significant side effects.
  • 16
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Noninvasive Indices for Hepatic Fibrosis in Hemodialysis Patients
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem in hemodialysis patients, which leads to significant morbidity and mortality through progressive hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. Percutaneous liver biopsy is the gold standard to stage hepatic fibrosis. However, it is an invasive procedure with postbiopsy complications. Because uremia may significantly increase the risk of fatal and nonfatal bleeding events, the use of noninvasive means to assess the severity of hepatic fibrosis is particularly appealing to hemodialysis patients.
  • 11
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Effect of COVID-19 on Liver
The gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Most patients present with gastrointestinal symptoms and/or abnormal liver function tests, both of which have been associated with adverse outcomes. The mechanisms of liver damage are currently under investigation, but the damage is usually transient and nonsevere. Liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for acute liver failure and end-stage liver disease, and unfortunately, because of the need for ventilators during the COVID-19 pandemic, most liver transplant programs were temporarily suspended. 
  • 37
  • 26 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Gut Microbiota and NAFLD Development
NAFLD, the most common liver disorder in the Western world, is characterized by intrahepatic lipid accumulation; is highly prevalent in the aging population; and is closely associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.
  • 22
  • 23 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently the third most frequent form of malignancy and the second in terms of mortality. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are recognized risk factors for this type of cancer. Despite a worldwide increase in the incidence of CRC, the risk of CRC-related death in IBD patients has declined over time, probably because of successful surveillance strategies, the use of more effective drugs in the management of remission and improved indications to colectomy. 
  • 32
  • 21 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Polysaccharides Against Gastric Cancer
Gastric cancer is a common type of cancer that poses a serious threat to human health. Polysaccharides are important functional phytochemicals, and research shows that polysaccharides have good anti-gastric cancer effects. Researchers collated all relevant literature published from 2000 to 2020 and found that more than 60 natural polysaccharides demonstrate anti-gastric cancer activity. At the present, the sources of these polysaccharides include fungi, algae, tea, Astragalus membranaceus, Caulis Dendrobii, and other foods and Chinese herbal medicines. By regulating various signaling pathways, including the PI3K/AKT, MAPK, Fas/FasL, Wnt/β-catenin, IGF-IR, and TGF-β signaling pathways, polysaccharides induce gastric cancer cell apoptosis, cause cell cycle arrest, and inhibit migration and invasion. In addition, polysaccharides can enhance the immune system and killing activity of immune cells in gastric cancer patients and rats.
  • 23
  • 20 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Adipokines in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the major cause of chronic hepatic illness and the leading indication for liver transplantation in the future decades. NAFLD is also commonly associated with other high-incident non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular complications, type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Aggravating the socio-economic impact of this complex pathology, routinely feasible diagnostic methodologies and effective drugs for NAFLD management are unavailable. The pathophysiology of NAFLD, defined as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), is correlated with abnormal adipose tissue–liver axis communication because obesity-associated white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and metabolic dysfunction prompt hepatic insulin resistance (IR), lipid accumulation (steatosis), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Accumulating evidence links adipokines, cytokine-like hormones secreted by adipose tissue that have immunometabolic activity, with NAFLD pathogenesis and progression.
  • 29
  • 16 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Paediatric and Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer affecting adults and the second most common primary liver cancer affecting children. 
  • 48
  • 15 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Neural Signaling in the Pancreatic Cancer Microenvironment
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignant diseases. Various cells in the tumor microenvironment interact with tumor cells and orchestrate to support tumor progression. Several kinds of nerves are found in the tumor microenvironment, and each plays an essential role in tumor biology. Studies have shown that sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory neurons are found in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment. Neural signaling not only targets neural cells, but tumor cells and immune cells via neural receptors expressed on these cells, through which tumor growth, inflammation, and anti-tumor immunity are affected. Thus, these broad-range effects of neural signaling in the pancreatic cancer microenvironment may represent novel therapeutic targets. The modulation of neural signaling may be a therapeutic strategy targeting the whole tumor microenvironment.
  • 33
  • 15 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Herbal Approaches to Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain
Chronic abdominal pain is one of the most common problems seen by both pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists. Abdominal-pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are diagnosed in children with chronic and recurrent abdominal pain meeting clinical criteria set forth in the Rome IV criteria. AP-FGIDs affect approximately 20% of children worldwide and include functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain (FAP), and abdominal migraine. IBS accounts for 45% of pediatric AP-FGIDs. The pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain involves an interplay of factors including early life events, genetics, psychosocial influences, and physiologic factors of visceral sensitivity, motility disturbance, altered mucosal immune function, and altered central nervous system processing. Researchers discuss popular herbal treatments typically used in the field of complementary medicine to treat pediatric AP-FGIDs: peppermint oil, fennel, licorice, and STW5.
  • 41
  • 14 Sep 2022
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