Topic Review
Appetite Regulation and Bariatric Surgery
Obesity remains a common metabolic disorder and a threat to health as it is associated with numerous complications. Lifestyle modifications and caloric restriction can achieve limited weight loss. Bariatric surgery is an effective way of achieving substantial weight loss as well as glycemic control secondary to weight-related type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • 199
  • 27 May 2024
Topic Review
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Phytochemicals for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mainly comprises Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and is a group of chronic relapsing disorders characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with variable phenotypic expression. Multiple factors have been implicated in the etiology of IBD, including environmental, genetic, microbiological and immunological interactions. However, the exact reasons remain unclear, although substantial progress in elucidating the complexity of IBD manifestation has been made in the past decades. There is clinical overlap of symptoms of CD and UC, including bloody or watery diarrhea, recurrent abdominal pain, tenesmus as well as non-specific systemic symptoms such as fatigue, fever and weight loss. CD can affect various parts of the intestine, i.e., both small and large intestine, while UC is known to affect only the colon. IBD usually follows a lifelong pattern of remissions and flare-ups that impacts the quality of life of patients. The inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract during flare-ups is mediated by neutrophils that release cytokines, enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to damage and even ulceration of the mucosa.
  • 190
  • 19 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Role of Methionine Restriction in Gastric Cancer
Gastric cancer is ranked as the fifth most prevalent cancer globally and has long been a topic of passionate discussion among numerous individuals. However, the incidence of gastric cancer in society has not decreased, but instead has shown a gradual increase in recent years. For more than a decade, the treatment effect of gastric cancer has not been significantly improved. This is attributed to the heterogeneity of cancer, which makes popular targeted therapies ineffective. Methionine is an essential amino acid, and many studies have shown that it is involved in the development of gastric cancer. Our study aimed to review the literature on methionine and gastric cancer, describing its mechanism of action to show that tumor heterogeneity in gastric cancer does not hinder the effectiveness of methionine-restricted therapies. This research also aimed to provide insight into the inhibition of gastric cancer through metabolic reprogramming with methionine-restricted therapies, thereby demonstrating their potential as adjuvant treatments for gastric cancer.
  • 238
  • 18 Mar 2024
Topic Review
BCAAs Metabolism during Chronic Liver Disease in Humans
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), indispensable for protein synthesis and metabolic pathways, undergo unique tissue-specific processing in skeletal muscle and liver. The liver, responsible for amino acid metabolism, plays a distinctive role in sensing BCAAs catabolism, influencing glucose regulation and contributing to the systemic metabolism of BCAAs.
  • 383
  • 18 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Metformin in Esophageal Cancer
Esophageal cancer (EC), ranking sixth in global cancer mortality, comprises two distinct diseases: esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). EAC is linked to Barrett’s esophagus (BE), influenced by factors like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and obesity, while ESSC arises from squamous cells, with tobacco and alcohol as notable risks.
  • 214
  • 14 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Endoscopic Diagnosis of Early Gastric Cancer
Endoscopy is mandatory to detect early gastric cancer (EGC). When considering the cost-effectiveness of the endoscopic screening of EGC, risk stratification by combining serum pepsinogen values and anti-H. pylori IgG antibody values is very promising. After the detection of suspicious lesions of EGC, a detailed observation using magnifying endoscopy with band-limited light is necessary, which reveals an irregular microsurface and/or an irregular microvascular pattern with demarcation lines in the case of cancerous lesions. Endocytoscopy enables us to make an in vivo histological diagnosis. 
  • 213
  • 11 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Cutaneous Disorders Masking Celiac Disease
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic gluten-related disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of intestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations, including damage to cutaneous and connective tissue. 
  • 192
  • 08 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Biologic Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients
Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experience a loss of effectiveness to biologic therapy (i.e., anti-TNF therapy, etc.). Therefore, in addition to the adverse effects of the treatment, these patients also face failure to achieve and maintain remission. Immunogenicity, the process of production of antibodies to biological agents, is fundamental to the evolution of loss of response to treatment in IBD patients.
  • 104
  • 07 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis and Crohn’s Disease
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne’s disease (JD), which is a chronic infectious gastrointestinal disease of ruminants and is often fatal. In humans, MAP has been associated with Crohn’s disease (CD) for over a century, without conclusive evidence of pathogenicity. Numerous researchers have contributed to the subject, but there is still a need for evidence of the causation of CD by MAP.
  • 189
  • 07 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease following Sleeve Gastrectomy
Obesity is associated with serious comorbidities and economic implications. Bariatric surgery, most commonly Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, are effective options for weight loss and the improvement of obesity-related comorbidities. With the growing obesity epidemic, there has been a concomitant rise in bariatric surgeries, particularly in sleeve gastrectomy. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is highly prevalent in obese individuals, can significantly impact quality of life and may lead to serious complications. Obesity and GERD both improve with weight loss.
  • 110
  • 07 Mar 2024
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