Topic Review
 Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are genetically complex and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) resulting from genetic factors and gene-environment (GxE) interactions for which onset occurs in early brain development.
  • 436
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review Video
‘Teratoid’ Hepatoblastoma
Liver neoplasms are quite rare in childhood. They often involve 6.7 cases per 10 million children aged 18 years or younger. Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most frequent tumor, but this neoplasm’s rarity points essentially to the difficulty of performing biologic studies and large-scale therapeutic trials. On the pathological ground, HB is separated into an entirely epithelial neoplasm or a mixed neoplasm with epithelial and mesenchymal components. This last category has been further subdivided into harboring teratoid features or not. The ‘teratoid’ HB includes a mixture of components with heterologous origin.
  • 644
  • 24 Apr 2022
Topic Review
“Omic” Studies and Cadasil
CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy; OMIM#125310) is a systemic arteriopathy of non-atherosclerotic and non-amyloid cause. It is a rare disease affecting fewer than 2/1000 individuals, caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. It has autosomal dominant inheritance, although it can also occur due to de novo mutations. 
  • 875
  • 26 Jul 2021
Topic Review
“Omics” Biomarkers in Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal malignancies and the seventh leading cause of cancer-related deaths related to late diagnosis, poor survival rates, and high incidence of metastasis. 
  • 733
  • 18 May 2021
Topic Review
“Small Hepatocytes” in the Liver
Mature hepatocytes (MHs) in an adult rodent liver are categorized into the following three subpopulations based on their proliferative capability: type I cells (MH-I), which are committed progenitor cells that possess a high growth capability and basal hepatocytic functions; type II cells (MH-II), which possess a limited proliferative capability; and type III cells (MH-III), which lose the ability to divide (replicative senescence) and reach the final differentiated state. These subpopulations may explain the liver’s development and growth after birth. Generally, small-sized hepatocytes emerge in mammal livers. The cells are characterized by being morphologically identical to hepatocytes except for their size, which is substantially smaller than that of ordinary MHs. We initially discovered small hepatocytes (SHs) in the primary culture of rat hepatocytes.
  • 230
  • 21 Dec 2023
Topic Review
(−)-Methyl-Oleocanthal, a New Oleocanthal Metabolite
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses of (−)-methyl-oleocanthal (met-OLE), a new metabolite of the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenolic oleocanthal (OLE), were explored in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine peritoneal macrophages. Possible signaling pathways and epigenetic modulation of histones were studied. Met-OLE inhibited LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrite (NO) production and decreased the overexpression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes COX-2, mPGES-1 and iNOS in murine macrophages.
  • 561
  • 13 Jan 2022
Topic Review
(Endo)Cannabinoids and Gynaecological Cancers
Gynaecological cancers can be primary neoplasms, originating either from the reproductive tract or the products of conception, or secondary neoplasms, representative of metastatic disease. For some of these cancers, the exact causes are unknown; however, it is recognised that the precise aetiopathogeneses for most are multifactorial and include exogenous (such as diet) and endogenous factors (such as genetic predisposition), which mutually interact in a complex manner. One factor that has been recognised to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of gynaecological cancers is the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists of endocannabinoids (bioactive lipids), their receptors, and metabolic enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation.
  • 1.6K
  • 31 Aug 2021
Topic Review
[18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET Imaging in Infectious and Inflammatory Disorders
In 1976, when [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) was introduced as a radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET), it revolutionized medical imaging, especially in the fields of neurology, oncology, and cardiology. Later, it also gained importance in diagnosing infectious and inflammatory disorders. [18F]FDG, as an analog of glucose, accumulates in a cell with high rates of glycolysis (such as in cancer cells and inflammatory cells) by entering the cell via glucose transporters and is then phosphorylated by hexokinase to deoxyglucose phosphate, which remains locked in this state. The high uptake of [18F]FDG by the metabolically active inflammatory cells has played a major role in the detection of inflammatory reactions in response to microorganisms such as bacteria. Hence, [18F]FDG is commonly used for detecting infectious and inflammatory disorders.
  • 397
  • 06 Apr 2023
Topic Review
[18F]FET PET in Glioma Recurrence
[18F]fluoroethyl-tyrosine (FET) is an artificial amino acid taken up into upregulated tumoral cells by the LAT system, independently of blood brain barrier leakage. FET is diffuse in Europe and has been shown to provide high sensitivity and specificity for glioma detection resulting in a reliable diagnostic tool for differentiating tumor recurrence/progression from treatment related changes.
  • 603
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
[18F]FDG PET/CT Diagnosis
According to the international societies’ recommendations, the 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F]FDG PET/CT) technique should not be used as the method of choice in brain tumour diagnosis. Therefore, the brain region can be omitted during standard [18F]FDG PET/CT scanning. We performed comprehensive literature research and analysed results from 14,222 brain and torso [18F]FDG PET/CT studies collected in 2010–2020 to discuss whether the [18F]FDG PET/CT method may be useful in brain tumours detection.
  • 737
  • 29 Mar 2022
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