Topic Review
Yeast-Based Biosensors
Composed of a sensor part made up of live yeast cells coupled to a transducer/reporter technological element, yeast-based biosensors are  powerful tools to detect and monitor environmental contaminants, toxins and generally organic or chemical markers of potential threat to human health. Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms very resistant to adverse environmental conditions but also able to sense and respond to a wide variety of stimuli. As eukaryotes, they constitute excellent cellular models to detect organic contaminants and chemicals  harmful to animals. For these reasons, combined with their ease of culture and genetic modification, yeasts have often been chosen as biological elements of biosensors since the 1970s. Numerous different types of yeast-based biosensors have been developed for the environmental and medical domains, some of which are able to detect pathogens and viruses. The present technological developments of Synthesis Biology and Nanotechnologies further drive yeasts based biosensors into a new era where the biological element is optimized in a tailor-made fashion by in silico design and where the output signals can be recorded or followed on a smartphone.
  • 301
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Yeast Hybrids in Brewing
Microbiology has long been a keystone in fermentation, and innovative yeast molecular biotechnology continues to represent a fruitful frontier in brewing science. Consequently, modern understanding of brewer’s yeast has undergone significant refinement over the last few decades.
  • 207
  • 22 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Xylose Metabolism in Bacteria
Some wild-type and genetically modified bacteria can metabolize xylose through three different main pathways of metabolism: xylose isomerase pathway, oxidoreductase pathway, and non-phosphorylative pathway (including Weimberg and Dahms pathways). Two of the commercially interesting intermediates of these pathways are xylitol and xylonic acid, which can accumulate in the medium either through manipulation of the culture conditions or through genetic modification of the bacteria. 
  • 196
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Xylitol Biosynthesis in the Yeast Candida
Xylitol is an industrially important chemical due to its commercial applications. The use of xylitol as a sweetener as well as its utilization in biomedical applications has made it a high value specialty chemical.
  • 133
  • 09 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Wearable Stretch Sensors
Wearable sensors are beneficial for continuous health monitoring, movement analysis, rehabilitation, evaluation of human performance. Wearable stretch sensors are increasingly being used for human movement monitoring. The content presented provides a review of wearable stretch sensors as well the design, development and validation of a wearable soft-robotic-stretch sensors. 
  • 1295
  • 25 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae through Biosorption
Bacteria naturally present in wastewater contribute to nutrient removal. The analysis here are promising for the potential environmentally friendly application of C. vulgaris in the development of an integrated biorefinery in sugar beet processing plants for improved and cost-effective wastewater treatment. It could also be considered particularly important for a multifaceted approach to managing the environmental sustainability of wastewater bioremediation.
  • 133
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Volatile Fatty Acid recovery
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids containing two to six carbon atoms that are produced as the final product of acidogenic fermentation in anaerobic digestion process.
  • 174
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
VLSI Structures for DNA Sequencing
DNA sequencing is a critical functionality in biomedical research, and technical advances that improve it have important implications for human health. The overall structure of DNA is negatively charged and has a negative electrostatic potential due to a negatively charged phosphate backbone. Nucleotides are electroactive compounds that produce reduction and oxidation signals after hybridization. These high electrostatic potentials can be exploited with VLSI charge-sensitive electronic structures. The sequence of DNA is encoded within each nitrogenous base: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T), and this 4-bit system allows for large amounts of information to be stored in a single DNA molecule, which may contain upward of 3 billion bases. 
  • 126
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin K
Vitamin K has been recognized as a key factor for the synthesis of blood clotting factors in the liver, and is currently known to be involved in a wide range of biological processes and is associated with many pathological conditions.The most well-known function of vitamin K is as a cofactor for the γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) enzyme responsible for the post-translational modification of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) through the conversion of specific glutamic acid (Glu) into calcium binding γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues. Vitamin K deficiency has been linked to several pathological conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), osteoarthritis (OA) , rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoporosis, cancer, dementia, certain skin pathologies, functional decline, and disability.  A new concept on the involvement of vitamin K in inflammation is growing. In fact, novel roles have been disclosed for vitamin K independent of its activity as a cofactor for GGCX, such as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, promoter of cognition, inhibition of tumor progression, and transcriptional regulator of osteoblastic genes. A growing number of studies has raised an increasing interest on the use of vitamin K as a health promoting supplement.  Aging societies represent a major economic challenge for health care systems, and diet supplements promoting healthy aging and improving the prognosis of age-related diseases, are required to be implemented in clinical practice.This work thoroughly reviews available data regarding differences between vitamin K1 and K2, contextualized with clinical aspects of vitamin K deficiency, including their sources, functions, target activity, and involvement in age-related diseases. Processes for the chemical and biological production of vitamin K1 and K2 will be briefly addressed. Additionally, novel sources with potential biotechnological application, and new formulations to improve vitamin K absorption and bioavailability are presented.
  • 492
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Virus-Like Particles-Based COVID-19 Vaccines
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a versatile, safe, and highly immunogenic vaccine platform. The use of a very flexible vaccine platform in COVID-19 vaccine development is an important feature that cannot be ignored. Incorporating the spike protein and its variations into VLP vaccines is a desirable strategy as the morphology and size of VLPs allows for better presentation of several different antigens. 
  • 136
  • 18 Feb 2022
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