Topic Review
Cytokines as Selected Biomarkers of Depression
Depression is one of the leading mental illnesses worldwide and lowers the quality of life of many. According to WHO, about 5% of the worldwide population suffers from depression. Studies report a staggering global prevalence of 27.6%, and it is rising. Professionally, depression belonging to affective disorders is a psychiatric illness, and the category of major depressive disorder (MDD) comprises various diagnoses related to persistent and disruptive mood disorders. Due to this fact, it is imperative to find a way to assess depression quantitatively using a specific biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that would be able to reflect the patients’ state and the effects of therapy. Cytokines, hormones, oxidative stress markers, and neuropeptides are studied in association with depression. 
  • 20
  • 31 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Thalassotherapy for Improving Well-Being and Post-Oncology Recovery
Cancer treatments have undergone significant advances, although they are not exempt from side effects, including skin toxicity. Different studies show that skin care for cancer patients can be effective in reducing sequelae such as inflammation, xerosis, skin rash, and radiodermatitis, among others. It is necessary to implement measures that improve the patient’s well-being and, therefore, thalassotherapy techniques and the marine environment could be an effective resource to achieve this goal. Thalassotherapy is the combined use of marine elements (water, algae, mud and climate), in a marine environment for healing and well-being improvement purposes. 
  • 19
  • 31 Jan 2023
Topic Review
The Social Determinants of Health
The five main areas of social determinants of health (SDOH) are economic stability, healthcare access and quality, education access and quality, social and community context, and the neighborhood and built environment. Each of these domains can be further detailed by specific factors that may go on to affect a patient’s quality of life and health.
  • 37
  • 29 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Emergencies of Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders
Temporomandibular disorder is a musculoskeletal disease with complex, multifactorial etiology regarding improper functioning of the stomatognathic system (masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints, and surrounding structures). Here presents medical emergencies occurring among patients treated for temporomandibular disorders, which tend to constitute a severe difficulty for practitioners during their clinical practice. Examples of the most common emergencies of this type are disc displacement without reduction and a sudden contraction of the inferior part of the lateral pterygoid muscle. The latter occurs in cases of uncontrolled and incorrect use of the anterior repositioning splints and the hypertrophy of the coronoid process of the mandible. 
  • 22
  • 29 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Feeding Abilities in Achondroplasia Patients
Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant genetic disease representing the most common form of human skeletal dysplasia: almost all individuals with achondroplasia have identifiable mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) gene. The cardinal features of this condition and its inheritance have been well-established, but the occurrence of feeding and nutritional complications has received little prominence. In infancy, the presence of floppiness and neurological injury due to foramen magnum stenosis may impair the feeding function of a newborn with achondroplasia. Along with growth, the optimal development of feeding skills may be affected by variable interactions between midface hypoplasia, sleep apnea disturbance, and structural anomalies. Anterior open bite, prognathic mandible, retrognathic maxilla, and relative macroglossia may adversely impact masticatory and respiratory functions. Independence during mealtimes in achondroplasia is usually achieved later than peers. Early supervision of nutritional intake should proceed into adolescence and adulthood because of the increased risk of obesity and respiratory problems and their resulting sequelae. 
  • 25
  • 29 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Factors Influencing Community Health Workers’ Preparedness for ICT
Globally, community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly viewed as an integral part of the health system as opposed to simply being an extension of it. Given this view, most low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) have refocused their efforts on reorganising CHW initiatives to maximise their impact. In 2011, the South African Department of Health formally integrated community health workers (CHWs) into the national health system to strengthen primary healthcare delivery following the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) principles and the South African National Development Plan 2030. Several studies have found that most CHWs are comfortable providing clinical treatment but are unsure how to translate epidemiological and socio-demographic data into relevant information for service delivery. Information and communication technology (ICT) provides a viable mechanism for assisting CHWs with information appropriation.
  • 21
  • 29 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Spermatozoon Effect on Embryo Development
The intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique was invented to solve severe male infertility due to altered sperm parameters. It is applied worldwide for the treatment of couple infertility. ICSI is performed with any available spermatozoon from surgery or ejaculated samples, whatever are the sperm motility, morphology or quantity. The causes of male infertility are crucial in building a competent spermatozoa that will contribute to normal embryonic development and healthy offspring.
  • 36
  • 28 Jan 2023
Topic Review
SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein-Induced Dysfunction of the NRP-1/VEGF-A Complex
Long coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a newly discovered syndrome characterized by multiple organ manifestations that persist for weeks to months, following the recovery from acute disease. Occasionally, neurological and cardiovascular side effects mimicking long COVID-19 have been reported in recipients of COVID-19 vaccines. Hypothetically, the clinical similarity could be due to a shared pathogenic role of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein produced by the virus or used for immunization. The S protein can bind to neuropilin (NRP)-1, which normally functions as a coreceptor for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. By antagonizing the docking of VEGF-A to NRP-1, the S protein could disrupt physiological pathways involved in angiogenesis and nociception. One consequence could be the increase in unbound forms of VEGF-A that could bind to other receptors. SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals may exhibit increased plasma levels of VEGF-A during both acute illness and convalescence, which could be responsible for diffuse microvascular and neurological damage.
  • 37
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Citrus Flavone Nobiletin and Circadian Rhythms
The importance of the circadian clock in maintaining human health is now widely acknowledged. Dysregulated and dampened clocks may be a common cause of age-related diseases and metabolic syndrome Thus, circadian clocks should be considered as therapeutic targets to mitigate disease symptoms. 
  • 96
  • 19 Jan 2023
Topic Review
PENG-Based Non-Invasive Medical Sensors
Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) not only are able to harvest mechanical energy from the ambient environment or body and convert mechanical signals into electricity but can also inform people about pathophysiological changes and communicate this information using electrical signals, thus acting as medical sensors to provide personalized medical solutions to patients.
  • 38
  • 19 Jan 2023
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