Topic Review
Adhesion Protein Sialylation
The importance of adhesion protein sialylation was recognized by studying the changes of adhesion behavior of human tissue cells exposed in vitro to microgravity. Proteins involved in cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix adhesion were investigated by retrieving and evaluation of information about sialylation of cell adhesion molecules detected by omics studies on cells, which change their adhesion behavior when exposed to microgravity. Using a knowledge graph created from experimental omics data and semantic searches across several reference databases, sialylation of adhesion proteins glycosylated at their extracellular domains and their impact in cellular processes were studied. This way, experimental omics data networked with the current knowledge about binding of sialic acids to cell adhesion proteins, its regulation and interactions in-between those proteins provided insights in the mechanisms behind experimental findings suggesting that balancing sialylation against de-sialylation of the terminal ends of the adhesion proteins’ glycans influences the binding activity of adhesion proteins, the interaction of cells and their aggregation. This shed light on the transition from the cells’ growth in a monolayer to spheroid formation observed in microgravity mirroring cell migration and cancer metastasis in vivo.
  • 343
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease and the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population world-wide.The used medications treat the symptoms of AD, but without any delay on the progression of the disease. Curcumin presented favorable effects on AD. In the last decade curcumin analogues and derivatives have been synthesized in an attempt to optimize the beneficial properties of curcumin and improve its absorbance and  distribution per os as a therapeutic agent. Reviewing the bibliographical data of the last decade, information on the structures and / or chemical groups that are associated with specific action against AD, was gathered, derived from docking studies, (Q)SAR from vitro and in vivo tests. Phenolic hydroxyl groups might contribute to the anti-amyloidogenic activity. Phenyl methoxy groups seems to contribute to the suppression of Aβ42 and to the suppression of APP. Hydrophobic interactions revealed to be important. The presence of flexible moieties at the linker are crucial for the inhibition of Aβ aggregation. The inhibitory activity of derivatives is increased with the expansion of the aromatic rings. The keto-enol tautomer form offers as a new modification for the design of amyloid-binding agents. Taking the above under consideration  innovative design  and synthesis will lead to more potent and specific curcumin analogues and derivatives against AD.
  • 524
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Amanullah Amanullah
Dr. Amanullah is currently working as Associate Professor in the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Production Sciences, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. Dr. Amanullah did his PhD in Agronomy from The University of Agriculture Peshawar in 2004 & and his Post Doctorate from Dryland Agriculture Institute, WTAMU, Canyon Texas, USA in 2010.  Dr. Amanullah has published more than 21 books and more than 200 research papers in peer reviewed journals including 100 papers in the impact factor journals. He is the co-author of three recent books of published by FAO (1): Soil and Pulses: Symbiosis for Life (2016) (2): Unlocking the Potential of Soil Organic Carbon (2017) and (3): Soil Pollution: a hidden reality (2018). Dr. Amanullah edited three books with Intech: (1) Rice - Technology and Production (2017), (2) Nitrogen in Agriculture-Updates (2018) & (3) Corn: Production and Human Health in Changing Climate (2018). Dr. Amanullah has been awarded with three Research Productivity Awards by the Pakistan Council for Science and Technology (PCST), Islamabad in 2011-12, 2012-13, and 2015-16. Dr. Amanullah represented Pakistan in the FAO Intergovernmental technical panel on soil of Global Soil Partnership (2015-2018). Dr. Amanullah also won the first prize in the innovative research proposal competition arranged by DICE at the University of Gujarat in 2013-14.  Dr. Amanullah field of interests includes: Agronomy, Field Crops Production, Crop Physiology & Growth Analysis, Inter-Cropping & Plants Competition, Biodiversity, Carbon Estimation in Field Crops, Crop Nutrition, Fertilizer and Water Use Efficiency, Dryland Agriculture & Drought, Organic Farming, Crops Management under Stressful Environments, Sustainable Crop, Sustainable Soil Management and Water Management, and Farmers training etc. 
  • 163
  • 20 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Bamboo Node’s Vascular Bundle
The vascular bundle is an important structural unit that determines the growth and properties of bamboo. A high-resolution X-ray microtomography (μCT) was used to observe and reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) morphometry model of the vascular bundle of the Qiongzhuea tumidinoda node due to its advantages of quick, nondestructive, and accurate testing of plant internal structure.
  • 270
  • 23 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Biomechanical Factors in Track and Field Sprint Start
In athletics sprint events, the block start performance can be fundamental to the outcome of a race. Several biomechanical determinants of sprinters have been identified. In the “Set” position, an anthropometry-driven block setting facilitating the hip extension and a rear leg contribution should be encouraged. At the push-off, a rapid extension of both hips and greater force production seems to be important. After block exiting, shorter flight times and greater propulsive forces are the main features of best sprinters. 
  • 136
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Bisphenols
Bisphenols (BPs), and especially bisphenol A (BPA), are known endocrine disruptors (EDCs), capable of interfering with estrogen and androgen activities, as well as being suspected of other health outcomes.
  • 401
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Blood-Brain Barrier: Functionalised Chitosan
The major impediment to the delivery of therapeutics to the brain is the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB allows for the entrance of essential nutrients while excluding harmful substances, including most therapeutic agents; hence, brain disorders, especially tumors, are very difficult to treat. Chitosan is a well-researched polymer that offers advantageous biological and chemical properties, such as mucoadhesion and ease of functionalization. Chitosan-based nanocarriers (CsNCs) establish ionic interactions with the endothelial cells, facilitating the crossing of drugs through the BBB by adsorptive mediated transcytosis. This process is further enhanced by modifications of the structure of chitosan, owing to the presence of reactive amino and hydroxyl groups. Finally, by permanently binding ligands or molecules, such as antibodies or lipids, CsNCs have shown a boosted passage through the BBB, in both in vivo and in vitro studies which will be discussed in this review.
  • 420
  • 21 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier
The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) has been long thought of as a functional equivalent to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), restricting blood flow into the spinal cord. The spinal cord is supported by various disc tissues that provide agility and has different local immune responses compared to the brain. Though physiologically, structural components of the BSCB and BBB share many similarities, the clinical landscape significantly differs. 
  • 165
  • 14 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Bradoriids and the Cambrian Diversification
Bradoriids, among the earliest arthropods to appear in the fossil record, are extinct, ostracod-like bivalved forms that ranged from the early Cambrian to the Middle Ordovician. Bradoriids are notable for having appeared in the Cambrian fossil record before the earliest trilobites, and considering their rapid ascent to high genus-level diversity, provide key data for our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the Cambrian Explosion. This paper presents a broad review of bradoriid paleobiology. 
  • 369
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Cardiac Development
Cardiac development is a complex developmental process that is initiated soon after gastrulation, as two sets of precardiac mesodermal precursors are symmetrically located and subsequently fused at the embryonic midline forming the cardiac straight tube. Thereafter, the cardiac straight tube invariably bends to the right, configuring the first sign of morphological left–right asymmetry and soon thereafter the atrial and ventricular chambers are formed, expanded and progressively septated. As a consequence of all these morphogenetic processes, the fetal heart acquired a four-chambered structure having distinct inlet and outlet connections and a specialized conduction system capable of directing the electrical impulse within the fully formed heart.
  • 102
  • 26 Feb 2021
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