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as an Allelopathic Potential Cover Crop
Camelina sativa, known for its high oil content and adaptability to diverse climatic conditions, exhibits allelopathic potential by releasing chemical compounds that inhibit weed growth. The crop’s vigorous growth and canopy architecture contribute to effective weed suppression, reducing the prevalence and spread of associated pathogens. Furthermore, the chemical compounds released by camelina through the solubilization of compounds from leaves by rain, root exudation, or deriving from microbial-mediated decay of camelina’s tissues interfere with the growth of neighbouring plants, indicating allelopathic interactions. The isolation and identification of benzylamine and glucosinolates as allelochemicals in camelina highlight their role in plant–plant interactions.
31 Aug 2023
Adhesion Protein Sialylation
The importance of adhesion protein sialylation was recognized by studying the changes of adhesion behavior of human tissue cells exposed in vitro to microgravity. Proteins involved in cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix adhesion were investigated by retrieving and evaluation of information about sialylation of cell adhesion molecules detected by omics studies on cells, which change their adhesion behavior when exposed to microgravity. Using a knowledge graph created from experimental omics data and semantic searches across several reference databases, sialylation of adhesion proteins glycosylated at their extracellular domains and their impact in cellular processes were studied. This way, experimental omics data networked with the current knowledge about binding of sialic acids to cell adhesion proteins, its regulation and interactions in-between those proteins provided insights in the mechanisms behind experimental findings suggesting that balancing sialylation against de-sialylation of the terminal ends of the adhesion proteins’ glycans influences the binding activity of adhesion proteins, the interaction of cells and their aggregation. This shed light on the transition from the cells’ growth in a monolayer to spheroid formation observed in microgravity mirroring cell migration and cancer metastasis in vivo.
30 Oct 2020
Adrenal Gland of Squamata
The adrenal gland is a complex endocrine organ composed of two components: a steroidogenic tissue, which produces steroid hormones, and a chromaffin tissue, which mainly produces norepinephrine and epinephrine. Through evolution, their relationships with each other changed. They begin as isolated chromaffin and steroidogenic cell aggregates, typical of fish, and end with the advanced compact gland, typical of mammals, which consists of an external steroidogenic cortical zone and an internal chromaffin medullary zone. The adrenal gland of reptiles is unique because, with few exceptions, it is near the gonads and genital ducts, and the chromaffin and steroidogenic tissues are closely associated.
31 Aug 2023
Age-at-Death Estimation by Dental Means
Age-at-death is one of the most valuable pieces of information in a biological profile, and is an important step in identifying remains. Age-at-death estimation by dental means is performed by forensic odontologists and forensic anthropologists in their daily casework tasks. Osteological and dental methods of age estimation rely on developmental changes in younger individuals and on degenerative changes in older individuals. Skeletal methods based on developmental changes are highly reliable, while methods based on degenerative or post-formation changes show higher variability. From all skeletal methods, those relying on tooth formation and development are the most accurate to assess an individual’s age. Dental methods of age estimation can be implemented in the skeletal analysis of juvenile and adult remains, representing an additional indicator of age.
07 Jul 2023
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease and the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population world-wide.The used medications treat the symptoms of AD, but without any delay on the progression of the disease. Curcumin presented favorable effects on AD. In the last decade curcumin analogues and derivatives have been synthesized in an attempt to optimize the beneficial properties of curcumin and improve its absorbance and distribution per os as a therapeutic agent. Reviewing the bibliographical data of the last decade, information on the structures and / or chemical groups that are associated with specific action against AD, was gathered, derived from docking studies, (Q)SAR from vitro and in vivo tests. Phenolic hydroxyl groups might contribute to the anti-amyloidogenic activity. Phenyl methoxy groups seems to contribute to the suppression of Aβ42 and to the suppression of APP. Hydrophobic interactions revealed to be important. The presence of flexible moieties at the linker are crucial for the inhibition of Aβ aggregation. The inhibitory activity of derivatives is increased with the expansion of the aromatic rings. The keto-enol tautomer form offers as a new modification for the design of amyloid-binding agents. Taking the above under consideration innovative design and synthesis will lead to more potent and specific curcumin analogues and derivatives against AD.
30 Oct 2020
Anatomical Tissue Engineering of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Entheses
The firm integration of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafts into bones remains the most demanding challenge in ACL reconstruction, since graft loosening means graft failure. For a functional-tissue-engineered ACL substitute to be realized in future, robust bone attachment sites (entheses) have to be re-established. The latter comprise four tissue compartments (ligament, non-calcified and calcified fibrocartilage, separated by the tidemark, bone) forming a histological and biomechanical gradient at the attachment interface between the ACL and bone. The ACL enthesis is surrounded by the synovium and exposed to the intra-articular micromilieu.
16 Jun 2023
Anatomical Variations of the External Jugular Vein
The external jugular vein (EJV) descends superficially to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and drains into the subclavian vein after penetrating the deep cervical fascia. Numerous morphological possibilities of the EJV could occur and should be carefully interpreted. These include fenestrations and double fenestrations, true or false duplications, triplication, absence, aberrant origin or course, bifurcation, or the internal jugular vein termination of the EJV.
31 Mar 2023
Anti-Cancer Potential of Edible/Medicinal Mushrooms in Breast Cancer
Edible/medicinal mushrooms have been traditionally used in Asian countries either in the cuisine or as dietary supplements and nutraceuticals. Among the different pharmacological activities reported (antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, immunomodulating, antidiabetic, etc.), edible/medicinal mushrooms have been shown to exert in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects on several kinds of tumors, including breast cancer.
25 Jun 2023
Approaches towards Healthier Meat Products
Meat products are a staple of many diets around the world, but they have been subject to criticism due to their potential negative impact on human health. There has been a growing interest in developing novel approaches to improve the healthy characteristics of meat products, with a particular focus on reducing the levels of harmful salts, lipids, and nitrites.
10 Aug 2023
Bamboo Node’s Vascular Bundle
The vascular bundle is an important structural unit that determines the growth and properties of bamboo. A high-resolution X-ray microtomography (μCT) was used to observe and reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) morphometry model of the vascular bundle of the Qiongzhuea tumidinoda node due to its advantages of quick, nondestructive, and accurate testing of plant internal structure.
23 Dec 2021
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
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Luis V. Lopez-Llorca
Encyclopedia of Digital Society, Industry 5.0 and Smart City
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