Topic Review
Curcumin Embedded Electrospun Nanofibers for Wound Healing
Chronic wounds impose a significant burden on individuals and healthcare systems all over the world. Through clinical and preclinical investigations, inflammation and oxidative damage have been established as the primary causes of chronic wounds. These skin sores are easily exposed to microorganisms, which in turn cause inflammation and hinder the healing process. Additionally, microorganisms may cause an infection that prevents collagen production and reepithelialization. Curcumin’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious characteristics, among others, have been identified as useful for diabetic wound healing management. However, curcumin has a few disadvantages, such as limited bioavailability, pH-dependent instability, water insolubility, slow cell absorption, and fast intracellular metabolism. These constraints necessitates the development of a suitable transporter to improve curcumin’s stability, bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy, and solubility. 
  • 33
  • 24 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Robotic Approach in Liver Surgery
In parallel with the historical development of minimally invasive surgery, the laparoscopic and robotic approaches are now frequently utilized to perform major abdominal surgical procedures. Nevertheless, the role of the robotic approach in liver surgery is still controversial, and a standardized, safe technique has not been defined yet. Minimally invasive liver surgery has been extensively associated with benefits, in terms of less blood loss, and lower complication rates, including liver-specific complications such as clinically relevant bile leakage and post hepatectomy liver failure, when compared to open liver surgery. Furthermore, comparable R0 resection rates to open liver surgery have been reported, thus, demonstrating the safety and oncological efficiency of the minimally invasive approach. 
  • 81
  • 21 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Decision Making during the Learning Curve of MIMVS
Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery is evolving rapidly since the early 1990’s and is now increasingly adopted as the standard approach for mitral valve surgery. It has a long and challenging learning curve and there are many considerations regarding technique, planning and patient selection when starting a minimally invasive program.
  • 34
  • 05 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Popliteal Bypass Surgery
Popliteal bypass surgery, more specifically known as femoral popliteal bypass surgery (FPB) or more generally as lower extremity bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure used to treat diseased leg arteries above or below the knee. It is used as a medical intervention to salvage limbs that are at risk of amputation and to improve walking ability in people with severe intermittent claudication (leg muscle pain) and ischemic rest pain. Popliteal bypass surgery is a common type of peripheral bypass surgery which carries blood from the femoral artery of the thigh to the end of the popliteal artery behind the knee. The femoral artery runs along the thigh and extends to become the popliteal artery which runs posteriorly to the knee joint and femur. Smaller arteries carry blood supply from the popliteal artery to the calf and into the foot. Blockages caused by plaque build-up or atherosclerosis in any of these arteries can reduce leg blood circulation, causing leg pain that may interfere with daily life. Standard Popliteal bypass surgery involves the bypass of the popliteal artery. During surgery, incisions are made depending on the location of the blockage. Usually, a healthy vein is located and sewn above and below the blockage to bypass the narrowed or blocked femoral artery. This allows the blood to be redirected to flow through the new healthy vessel around the blockage. In some cases, synthetic graft materials (such as polytetrafluoroethylene) are used instead of a vein graft.
  • 22
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy for Intra-Abdominal Infections
Adequately controlling the source of infection and prescribing appropriately antibiotic therapy are the cornerstones of the management of patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). Correctly classifying patients with IAIs is crucial to assessing the severity of their clinical condition and deciding the strategy of the treatment, including a correct empiric antibiotic therapy. Best practices in prescribing antibiotics may impact patient outcomes and the cost of treatment, as well as the risk of “opportunistic” infections such as Clostridioides difficile infection and the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
  • 27
  • 26 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Melanoma
Malignant melanoma is one of the most common cancers in the world. In the disease’s early stages, treatment involves surgery, in advanced stages however, treatment options were once scarce. There has been a paradigm shift in advanced melanoma treatment with the introduction of immunotherapy and targeted therapies. Understanding the molecular pathways and their pathologic counterparts helped identifying specific biomarkers that lead to the development of specific targeted therapies.
  • 52
  • 25 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Parenchyma Sparing Liver Resection versus Regenerative Liver Surgery
Liver resection for malignant tumors should respect oncological margins while ensuring safety and improving the quality of life, therefore tumor staging, underlying liver disease and performance status should all be attentively assessed in the decision process. The concept of parenchyma-sparing liver surgery is nowadays used as an alternative to major hepatectomies to address deeply located lesions with intricate topography by means of complex multiplanar parenchyma-sparing liver resections, preferably under the guidance of intraoperative ultrasound. Regenerative liver surgery evolved as a liver growth induction method to increase resectability by stimulating the hypertrophy of the parenchyma intended to remain after resection (referred to as future liver remnant), achievable by portal vein embolization and liver venous deprivation as interventional approaches, and portal vein ligation and associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy as surgical techniques. Interestingly, although both strategies have the same conceptual origin, they eventually became caught in the never-ending parenchyma-sparing liver surgery vs. regenerative liver surgery debate. However, these strategies are both valid and must both be mastered and used to increase resectability.
  • 56
  • 24 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Known Factors of Acute Pancreatitis
Pancreatitis is regarded by clinicians as one of the most complicated and clinically challenging of all disorders affecting the abdomen. It is classified on the basis of clinical, morphological, and histological criteria. Causes of acute pancreatitis can easily be identified in 75–85% of patients. The main causes of acute, recurrent acute, and chronic pancreatitis are gallstone migration and alcohol abuse. Other causes are uncommon, controversial, or unexplained. For instance, cofactors of all forms of pancreatitis are pancreas divisum and hypertriglyceridemia. Another factor that should be considered is a complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography acute pancreatitis. 
  • 42
  • 11 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Techniques to Preserve Endothelial Cells in Vein Grafts
Endothelial cells comprise the intimal layer of the vasculature, playing a crucial role in facilitating and regulating aspects such nutrient transport, vascular homeostasis, and inflammatory response. Endothelial dysfunction is believed to be a key driver for vein graft disease—a pathology in which vein grafts utilised in coronary artery bypass graft surgery develop intimal hyperplasia and accelerated atherosclerosis, resulting in poor long-term patency rates. Activation and denudation of the endothelium following surgical trauma and implantation of the graft encourage a host of immune, inflammatory, and cellular differentiation responses that risk driving the graft to failure. Several approaches have been developed to mitigate the onset and progression of this pathology both clincally and surgically, including optimisation of surgical technique, vein preservation conditions and pharma-modulation. Novel approaches are also under investigation in recent years, including the use of topical gene therapy and the utilisation of endothelial progenitor/colony-forming cells to regenerate vein grafts with the view to improving patient outcomes.
  • 92
  • 10 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Hybrid Breast Reconstruction
Lipofilling is a commonly performed procedure worldwide for breast augmentation and correction of breast contour deformities. In breast reconstruction, fat grafting has been used as a single reconstructive technique, as well as in combination with other procedures. 
  • 52
  • 23 Sep 2022
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