Topic Review
Known Factors of Acute Pancreatitis
Pancreatitis is regarded by clinicians as one of the most complicated and clinically challenging of all disorders affecting the abdomen. It is classified on the basis of clinical, morphological, and histological criteria. Causes of acute pancreatitis can easily be identified in 75–85% of patients. The main causes of acute, recurrent acute, and chronic pancreatitis are gallstone migration and alcohol abuse. Other causes are uncommon, controversial, or unexplained. For instance, cofactors of all forms of pancreatitis are pancreas divisum and hypertriglyceridemia. Another factor that should be considered is a complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography acute pancreatitis. 
  • 21
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Hybrid Breast Reconstruction
Lipofilling is a commonly performed procedure worldwide for breast augmentation and correction of breast contour deformities. In breast reconstruction, fat grafting has been used as a single reconstructive technique, as well as in combination with other procedures. 
  • 34
  • 23 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Pseudoaneurysm after Radical Prostatectomy
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant tumor among men in the Western world. Men with a life expectancy of at least 10 years could benefit from radical prostatectomy (RP), where the robotic approach offers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Delayed postoperative bleeding is a serious complication of RP, although rare. Iatrogenic pelvic pseudo-aneurysms following open, robotic or laparoscopic procedures have been rarely reported in the past. The clinical presentation of a bleeding pseudoaneurysm can be diversified and the clinical management of hemorrhage after RP has not been well-described, despite wide institutional and anecdotal experiences. 
  • 44
  • 19 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Frontline Extended Surgery
Surgery is the only curative treatment for localized disease in retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). Frontline extended surgery, or compartmental surgery, is a surgical strategy consisting of resecting the tumor together with adjacent organs, with the aim of minimizing marginality. 
  • 47
  • 08 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Klebsiella pneumoniae vs. Non-Klebsiella pneumoniae Pyogenic Liver Abscess
Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a common global public health problem as it contributes to 13% of intra-abdominal abscesses. With advancements in diagnostic microbiology, imaging technology, improved understanding of sepsis and critical care, and minimally invasive image-guided interventions such as percutaneous drainage (PD), clinical outcomes continue to improve; however, PLA-related mortality remains high, in the range of 10–30%. Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the leading causative organism for PLA, followed by Escherichia coli (EC). Klebsiella pneumoniae pyogenic liver abscess (KPPLA) is associated with DM and gas formation, possibly impacting clinical outcomes.
  • 31
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Roles of CAFs in the TME of PDAC
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most malignant digestive tumors, characterized by a low rate of early diagnosis, strong invasiveness, and early metastasis. The abundant stromal cells, dense extracellular matrix, and lack of blood supply in PDAC limit the penetration of chemotherapeutic drugs, resulting in poor efficacy of the current treatment regimens. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor cells can secrete exosomes to promote the generation of activated CAFs, meanwhile exosomes secreted by CAFs help promote tumor progression. 
  • 41
  • 02 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Classification and Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis
The pancreas is a glandular organ that is responsible for the proper functioning of the digestive and endocrine systems, and therefore, it affects the condition of the entire body. Consequently, it is important to effectively diagnose and treat diseases of this organ. According to clinicians, pancreatitis—a common disease affecting the pancreas—is one of the most complicated and demanding diseases of the abdomen. The classification of pancreatitis is based on clinical, morphologic, and histologic criteria. Medical doctors distinguish, inter alia, acute pancreatitis (AP), the most common causes of which are gallstone migration and alcohol abuse.
  • 55
  • 30 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of Jaw following Ablative Surgery
The reconstruction and rehabilitation of jaws following ablative surgery have been transformed by the development of computer-assisted surgery and virtual surgical planning. With strides made in computer-assisted surgery and patient-specific implants, the individual functional reconstruction of the jaw is evolving rapidly and the prompt rehabilitation of both the masticatory function and aesthetics after jaw resection has been made possible.
  • 77
  • 29 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence for Surgeons
Computer vision (CV) is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that deals with the automatic analysis of videos and images. Recent advances in AI and CV methods coupled with the growing availability of surgical videos of minimally invasive procedures have led to the development of AI-based algorithms to improve surgical care.
  • 65
  • 27 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Augmented Reality in Surgery
Augmented reality (AR) is an innovative system that enhances the real world by superimposing virtual objects on reality. The application of AR in image-guided surgery (IGS) can be an increasingly important opportunity for the treatment of patients. In particular, AR allows one to see 3D images projected directly onto patients thanks to the use of special displays.
  • 121
  • 09 Aug 2022
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