Topic Review
Monoclonal Antibodies for Targeted Fluorescence-Guided Surgery
Due to their specificity, monoclonal antibodies have significantly impacted cancer patients’ care, becoming one of the fastest-growing classes of new drugs approved for the treatment of solid tumors. Targeted fluorescence-guided surgery is a novel technology to better visualize tumor residuals intraoperatively. It consists of a fluorescent molecular probe, that, once injected, lights up the neoplastic cells during the surgical resection. In this regard, the development of an off-the-shelf large-scale production of clinically approved, fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies for targeted fluorescence-guided surgery is becoming an urgent need for oncological surgeons working in this field.
  • 60
  • 15 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Endoscopic Spine Surgery
The origins of endoscopic spine surgery can be traced back many decades, with many important innovations throughout its development. It can be applied to all levels of the spine, with many robust trials supporting its clinical outcomes. Continued clinical research is needed to explore its expanding indications.
  • 39
  • 15 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Post-Discectomy Infection
Postoperative discitis (POD) accounts for 20% to 30% of all cases of pyogenic spondylodiscitis, while POD may be mis-or-under-diagnosed, due to the vague related symptomatology and the non-specific imaging findings. Most studies report infection rate of less than 1%, which increases with the addition of non-instrumented fusion to 2.4% to 6.2%. The onset of POD symptoms usually occurs at 2–4 weeks after an apparently uneventful operation. Back pain and muscle spasms are usually refractory to bed rest and analgesics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive and specific imaging diagnostic technique. Antimicrobial therapy depends on the results of tissue cultures, and along with bracing represents the mainstay of management. Surgical intervention is necessary in patients failing conservative treatment. For the majority of cases, extensive surgical debridement, antibiotic therapy, and orthosis immobilization are effective in eliminating the infection.
  • 47
  • 12 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Thymus Surgery in Myasthenia Gravis
The thymus is a lymphoid organ involved in the differentiation of T cells, and has a central role in the physiopathogenesis of Myasthenia Gravis (MG). This connection is proved by a series of changes in the level of neuromuscular junctions, which leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the action potential in the post-synaptic membrane. Because of this, the presence of anti-cholinergic receptor antibodies (AChR), characteristic of MG, is found, which causes the progressive regression of the effect of acetylcholine at the level of neuromuscular junctions, with the appearance of muscle weakness. The thymectomy is a surgical variant of drug therapy administered to patients with MG. In the case of patients with nonthymomatous MG, thymectomy has become a therapeutic standard, despite the fact that there is no solid scientific evidence to explain its positive effect. Videothoracoscopic surgery or robotic surgery led to a decrease in the length of hospital stay for these patients.
  • 65
  • 08 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Wide Local Excision in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma Management
Surgical wide local excision (WLE) is an elective procedure involving the excision of a larger area of tissue surrounding the scar left after diagnostic excision of a primary cutaneous melanoma. It remains the current standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma and aims to achieve locoregional disease control with minimal functional and cosmetic impairment. Despite several prospective randomised trials, the optimal extent of excision margin remains controversial, and this is reflected in the persistent lack of consensus in guidelines globally.
  • 47
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Entero-Cutaneous and Entero-Atmospheric Fistulas
Enteric fistulas are a common problem in gastrointestinal tract surgery and remain associated with significant mortality rates, due to complications such as sepsis, malnutrition, and electrolyte imbalance. The increasingly widespread use of open abdomen techniques for the initial treatment of abdominal sepsis and trauma has led to the observation of so-called entero-atmospheric fistulas. Because of their clinical complexity, the proper management of enteric fistula requires a multidisciplinary team. The main goal of the treatment is the closure of enteric fistula, but also mortality reduction and improvement of patients’ quality of life are fundamental. Successful management of patients with enteric fistula requires the establishment of controlled drainage, management of sepsis, prevention of fluid and electrolyte depletion, protection of the skin, and provision of adequate nutrition.
  • 62
  • 28 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Clinical Application of Liquid Biopsy in Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma contributes significantly to global cancer-related deaths, featuring only a 10% survival rate over five years. The quest for novel tumor markers is critical to facilitate early diagnosis and tailor treatment strategies for this disease, which is key to improving patient outcomes. In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, these markers have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in early identification, continuous monitoring, and prediction of its prognosis and have led to better patient outcomes. Nowadays, biopsy specimens serve to ascertain diagnosis and determine tumor type. However, liquid biopsies present distinct advantages over conventional biopsy techniques. They offer a noninvasive, easily administered procedure, delivering insights into the tumor’s status and facilitating real-time monitoring. Liquid biopsies encompass a variety of elements, such as circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, extracellular vesicles, microRNAs, circulating RNA, tumor platelets, and tumor endothelial cells.
  • 66
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Applications of Advancing Prone-Transpsoas Spine Surgery
The Prone Transpsoas (PTP) approach to lumbar spine surgery, emerging as an evolution of lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF), offers significant advantages over traditional methods. PTP has demonstrated increased lumbar lordosis gains compared to LLIF, owing to the natural increase in lordosis afforded by prone positioning. Additionally, the prone position offers anatomical advantages, with shifts in the psoas muscle and lumbar plexus, reducing the likelihood of postoperative femoral plexopathy and moving critical peritoneal contents away from the approach. Furthermore, operative efficiency is a notable benefit of PTP. 
  • 92
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Connectome-Based Neurosurgery in Primary Intra-Axial Neoplasms
Despite the therapeutical advancements in the surgical treatment of primary intra-axial neoplasms, which determined both a significative improvement in overall survival (OS) and QoL and a reduction in the incidence of surgery-induced major neurological deficits, nowadays patients continue to manifest subtle post-operative neurocognitive impairments, preventing them from a full reintegration back into social life and into the workforce. The birth of connectomics paved the way for a profound reappraisal of the traditional conception of brain architecture, in favour of a model based on large-scale structural and functional interactions of a complex mosaic of cortical areas organized in a fluid network interconnected by subcortical bundles.
  • 77
  • 23 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Preparing for and Not Waiting for Surgery
Cancer surgery is an essential treatment strategy but can disrupt patients’ physical and psychological health. Perioperative medicine is a growing speciality that aims to improve clinical outcome by preparing patients for the stress associated with surgery. Preparation should begin at contemplation of surgery, with universal screening for established risk factors, physical fitness, nutritional status, psychological health, and, where applicable, frailty and cognitive function. 
  • 130
  • 23 Feb 2024
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