Topic Review
The Challenge of Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma
Perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (pCCA) are rare yet aggressive tumors originating from the bile ducts. While surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, only a minority of patients are amenable to curative resection, and the prognosis of unresectable patients is dismal. The introduction of liver transplantation (LT) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for unresectable pCCA in 1993 represented a major breakthrough, and it has been associated with 5-year survival rates consistently >50%. Despite these encouraging results, pCCA has remained a niche indication for LT, which is most likely due to the need for stringent candidate selection and the challenges in preoperative and surgical management.
  • 11
  • 23 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Adipokines and Breast Cancer
Adipokines (also known as adipocytokines) is a vast group of heterogenous soluble factors produced by adipose tissue that function in different pathways involving metabolism, inflammation, and vascular homeostasis. Adipokines interact with and activate different pathways that contribute to the hallmarks of breast cancer since they express respective receptors for the interaction.
  • 82
  • 22 Mar 2023
Topic Review
AI for Preoperative Measurements in Total Knee Arthroplasty
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is widely used in clinical practice as an effective treatment for end-stage knee joint lesions. It can effectively correct joint deformities, relieve painful symptoms, and improve joint function. The reconstruction of lower extremity joint lines and soft tissue balance are important factors related to the durability of the implant; therefore, it is especially important to measure the joint lines and associated angles before TKA. 
  • 56
  • 15 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Based Targeted Therapy Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with high mortality rates and poor prognoses. Despite rapid progress in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies remains limited. Hence, better alternative therapeutic options for treating pancreatic cancer need to be urgently explored. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have recently received much attention as a potential therapy for pancreatic cancer owing to their tumor-homing properties. 
  • 59
  • 15 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Tissue Senescence Reversing Techniques Modalities
Senescent cells and fibrosis are important components that impact the regenerative capacity of skin, particularly when considering chronic non-healing wounds. Anoderm and perianal fistulas in the setting of Crohn’s disease are clinically pathophysiological extremes with consequently different healing processes which impact treatment modalities.
  • 87
  • 27 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Membranes
Coated stents are defined as innovative stents surrounded by a thin polymer membrane based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)useful in the treatment of numerous vascular pathologies. Endovascular methodology involves the use of such devices to restore blood flow in small-, medium- and large-calibre arteries, both centrally and peripherally. These membranes cross the stent struts and act as a physical barrier to block the growth of intimal tissue in the lumen, preventing so-called intimal hyperplasia and late stent thrombosis. PTFE for vascular applications is known as expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) and it can be rolled up to form a thin multilayer membrane expandable by 4 to 5 times its original diameter. This membrane plays an important role in initiating the restenotic process because wrapped graft stent could be used as the treatment option for trauma devices during emergency situations and to treat a number of pathological vascular disease.
  • 48
  • 27 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Textured Surface Implants and BIA-ALCL
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) associated with textured-surface silicone breast implants. Since first being described in 1997, over 1100 cases have been reported worldwide. A causal relationship between BIA-ALCL and textured implants has been established in epidemiological studies.
  • 39
  • 23 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Infection of Vascular Prostheses
Vascular graft or endograft infection (VGEI) is a complex disease that complicates vascular-surgery and endovascular-surgery procedures and determines high morbidity and mortality.
  • 37
  • 21 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Oncolytic Viruses for the Treatment of Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers. Despite advancements in bladder cancer therapy, new strategies are still required for improving patient outcomes, particularly for those who experienced Bacille Calmette–Guerin failure and those with locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer. Oncolytic viruses are either naturally occurring or purposefully engineered viruses that have the ability to selectively infect and lyse tumor cells while avoiding harming healthy cells. In light of this, oncolytic viruses serve as a novel and promising immunotherapeutic strategy for bladder cancer. A wide diversity of viruses, including adenoviruses, herpes simplex virus, coxsackievirus, Newcastle disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, alphavirus, and vaccinia virus, have been studied in many preclinical and clinical studies for their potential as oncolytic agents for bladder cancer.
  • 27
  • 20 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Forefoot Function after Hallux Valgus Surgery
The load integrals (impulse) over the central metatarsal region significantly increased, indicating that surgeries increased the risk of transfer metatarsalgia. There is no solid evidence that hallux valgus (HV) surgeries could improve forefoot functions from a biomechanical point perspective. Surgeries might reduce the plantar load over the hallux and adversely affect push-off function. 
  • 35
  • 16 Feb 2023
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