Topic Review
Wide Local Excision in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma Management
Surgical wide local excision (WLE) is an elective procedure involving the excision of a larger area of tissue surrounding the scar left after diagnostic excision of a primary cutaneous melanoma. It remains the current standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma and aims to achieve locoregional disease control with minimal functional and cosmetic impairment. Despite several prospective randomised trials, the optimal extent of excision margin remains controversial, and this is reflected in the persistent lack of consensus in guidelines globally.
  • 63
  • 01 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Volumetric Muscle Loss
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is the massive wasting of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic events or surgical ablation. This pathological condition exceeds the physiological healing process carried out by the muscle itself, which owns remarkable capacity to restore damages but only when limited in dimensions. Upon VML occurring, the affected area is severely compromised, heavily influencing the affected person’s quality of life. Overall, this condition is often associated with chronic disability, which makes the return to duty of highly specialized professional figures (e.g., military personnel or athletes) almost impossible. The actual treatment for VML is based on surgical conservative treatment followed by physical exercise; nevertheless, the results, in terms of either lost mass and/or functionality recovery, are still poor. On the other hand, the efforts of the scientific community are focusing on reconstructive therapy aiming at muscular tissue void volume replenishment by exploiting biomimetic matrix or artificial tissue implantation. Reconstructing strategies represent a valid option to build new muscular tissue not only to recover damaged muscles, but also to better socket prosthesis in terms of anchorage surfaces and reinnervation substrates for reconstructed mass. 
  • 1.6K
  • 26 May 2021
Topic Review
Visualization Techniques in Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery
Skull base surgery has undergone significant progress following key technological developments. From early candle-lit devices to the modern endoscope, refinements in visualization techniques have made endoscopic skull base surgery (ESBS) a standard practice for treating a variety of conditions. The endoscope has also been integrated with other technologies to enhance visualization, including fluorescence agents, intraoperative neuronavigation with augmented reality, and the exoscope. 
  • 363
  • 06 May 2023
Topic Review
Venous Thromboembolisms (VTEs) in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)
The entry provides a comprehensive overview of Venous Thromboembolisms (VTEs) in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), a significant orthopedic procedure. It begins by highlighting the persistent threat of VTEs despite improvements in surgical techniques and preventive measures. The prevalence and incidence of VTEs are discussed, showcasing a notable decrease over the years. The clinical significance of VTEs, including their impact on patient outcomes and healthcare costs, is emphasized, underscoring the need for effective management strategies. Various risk factors contributing to VTE development post-TKA are explored, including demographic factors, cardiopulmonary status, preoperative mobilization status, and malignancy. The section on prevention outlines existing guidelines and challenges, with a focus on the efficacy and safety of aspirin as a prophylactic agent. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive approach to address VTEs in TKA, encompassing evidence-based guidelines, personalized patient care, and strategies to enhance adherence to preventive measures.
  • 129
  • 30 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Vascularization of the Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is a richly vascularized endocrine gland. It is an uneven organ located in a median position in the antero-lower region of the neck, between the fifth cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra.
  • 876
  • 29 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Vascular Access in Children with Short Bowel Syndrome
Short Bowel Syndrome and intestinal failure are chronic and severe conditions that may require life-long parenteral nutrition in children. Survival of these children relies on the correct functioning of central venous catheters; therefore, careful management, prevention, and treatment of complications is of paramount importance. Despite a growing awareness on preserving the vascular real estate, a certain number of patients still experience a progressive and life-threatening exhaustion of vascular access. 
  • 489
  • 31 May 2022
Topic Review
Urethral Strictures Treatment in Transmasculine
Genital gender-affirming surgery can be part of the transition process in transgender patients. The 2 standard options for transmasculine patients are phalloplasty and metoidioplasty. These complex procedures brings along the risk of complications such as fistulas or urethral strictures at the level of the neo-urethra. Urethral strictures pose a specific challenge to the reconstructive urologist, and studies that focus on the management of urethral strictures are scarce. This systematic review gives an overview of the known literature about strictures in transmasculine patients, the different treatments and the outcome . 
  • 447
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Tumor Vascular Involvement and Surgical Planning
Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPSs) are locally aggressive tumors that can compromise major vessels of the retroperitoneum including the inferior vena cava, aorta, or main tributary vessels. Vascular involvement can be secondary to the tumor’s infiltrating growth pattern or primary vascular origin. 
  • 193
  • 06 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Treatment of the Lips Using a CO2 Laser
A number of studies have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of CO2 laser irradiation for the repair and regeneration of scar tissue from injuries or surgical wounds. However, such studies of the oral mucosa are highly limited. Previous studies using CO2 laser irradiation have indicated that two factors contribute to esthetic healing, namely, artificial scabs, which are a coagulated and carbonized blood layer formed on the wound surface, and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for suppressing wound scarring and promoting wound healing. 
  • 131
  • 06 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Treatment of Rectal Cancer
Rectal cancer poses a substantial healthcare challenge, emphasizing the critical need for effective treatment strategies. Among the various approaches available, surgical intervention, notably total mesorectal excision (TME), stands as the gold standard for rectal cancer management, consistently delivering exceptional oncological results. In certain instances of early-stage disease, endoscopic treatments and transanal resection techniques may be viable options, offering a more conservative approach. Additionally, for cases characterized by locally advanced tumors, radiotherapy has demonstrated significant benefits in augmenting the overall treatment efficacy.
  • 338
  • 04 Sep 2023
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