Topic Review
Definitions and the Basics of Knot Tying
Surgical knots are sequences of half-knots (H) or half-hitches (S), defined by their number of throws, by an opposite or similar rotation compared with the previous one, and for half-hitches whether they are sliding (s) or blocking (b). Opposite rotation results in (more secure) symmetric (s) knots, similar rotation in asymmetric (a) knots, and changing the active and passive ends has the same effect as changing the rotation. Loop security is the force to keep tissue together after a first half-knot or sliding half-hitches. With polyfilament sutures, H2, H3, SSs, and SSsSsSs have a loop security of 10, 18, 28, and 48 Newton (N), respectively. With monofilament sutures, they are only 7, 16, 18, and 25 N. For knot security, half hitch sequences such as 2 sliding and 2 blocking half hitches are the future: the risk of destabilisation is less, and for monofilament sutures, they are mandatory.   
  • 2.8K
  • 05 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Anal Stenosis
Anal stenosis (AS) is defined as anatomical or functional narrowing of the anal canal, which can result from inflammatory bowel diseases, radiation therapy, congenital malformations, or excisional hemorrhoidectomy. The anatomical AS is related to the increased fibrous scar tissue forming, which disables stretching of the anal canal. The leading cause of the anatomical AS is excisional hemorrhoidectomy that is often the chosen treatment for grade III and IV hemorrhoidal disease.
  • 1.9K
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Breast Implant Illness
Breast implant illness refers to a combination of different symptoms related to breast implant surgery, including fatigue, brain fog, and arthralgias. This malaise occurs after cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgeries, although it has not been proven to be a disease. Complications associated with breast implants include breast pain, capsular contracture, infections, as well as other manifestations specific to breast reconstruction. 
  • 1.9K
  • 26 May 2022
Topic Review
Volumetric Muscle Loss
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is the massive wasting of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic events or surgical ablation. This pathological condition exceeds the physiological healing process carried out by the muscle itself, which owns remarkable capacity to restore damages but only when limited in dimensions. Upon VML occurring, the affected area is severely compromised, heavily influencing the affected person’s quality of life. Overall, this condition is often associated with chronic disability, which makes the return to duty of highly specialized professional figures (e.g., military personnel or athletes) almost impossible. The actual treatment for VML is based on surgical conservative treatment followed by physical exercise; nevertheless, the results, in terms of either lost mass and/or functionality recovery, are still poor. On the other hand, the efforts of the scientific community are focusing on reconstructive therapy aiming at muscular tissue void volume replenishment by exploiting biomimetic matrix or artificial tissue implantation. Reconstructing strategies represent a valid option to build new muscular tissue not only to recover damaged muscles, but also to better socket prosthesis in terms of anchorage surfaces and reinnervation substrates for reconstructed mass. 
  • 1.6K
  • 26 May 2021
Topic Review
Intersphincteric Resection for Low Rectal Cancers
Intersphincteric resection is an anus-preserving technique for low rectal cancers described by Schiessel et al. in 1994 as a combination of two techniques: the intersphincteric rectal excision for inflammatory bowel disease and the coloanal anastomosis for low rectal resections.
  • 1.1K
  • 08 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Rex Shunt
Rex shunt, which was first put in use in 1992, has been considered as an ideal surgical method for the treatment of extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) due to its reconstruction of the hepatopetal portal blood flow. 
  • 1.0K
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
A Smarter Health through Internet of Surgical Things
To systematically study the technological advances in a particular sector, attributed to the utilization of the Internet, the term “Internet of Things” (IoT) was introduced. The present systematic review, aims to present and analyze the modern applications of the IoT within the surgical world. While not strictly defined, IoT describes a network of Internet-based connected things equipped with (embedded) sensing and actuating devices, with data production, processing, and consumption abilities. The utilization of the Internet and IoT in medical practice can take many shapes and forms. Ranging from the awe-inspiring telesurgical procedures to complex AI machine learning applications that aid in medical decision making , to a simple email containing a preoperative CT scan, the Internet of Surgical Things (IoST) is here to stay. 
  • 1.0K
  • 04 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Lemongrass Essential Oil
Cymbopogon spp. are fast-growing C4 perennial sedges from the grass family Poaceae and are primarily cultivated for their essential oils. The genus lemongrass comprises about 180 species, such as Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon nardus, and Cymbopogon refractus. Lemongrass (Cymbopogonspp.) oil is a cocktail of various terpenes and terpenoids, out of which the major components belong to cyclic and acyclic monoterpenes. The monoterpenes are derived from geranyl diphosphate (GPP).
  • 938
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Azoospermia
Azoospermia (a-, without + –zoo– » Greek zôion, animal + –spermia– » Greek sperma, sperm/seed) is defined by the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.
  • 919
  • 04 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Classification and Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis
The pancreas is a glandular organ that is responsible for the proper functioning of the digestive and endocrine systems, and therefore, it affects the condition of the entire body. Consequently, it is important to effectively diagnose and treat diseases of this organ. According to clinicians, pancreatitis—a common disease affecting the pancreas—is one of the most complicated and demanding diseases of the abdomen. The classification of pancreatitis is based on clinical, morphologic, and histologic criteria. Medical doctors distinguish, inter alia, acute pancreatitis (AP), the most common causes of which are gallstone migration and alcohol abuse.
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  • 30 Aug 2022
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