Topic Review
Etiopathogenetic Models on BIA-ALCL
BIA-ALCL is a rare T-cell lymphoma, CD30 positive, ALK-negative usually discovered after the diagnosis of spontaneous periprosthetic seroma or intracapsular mass around the breast implant.
  • 178
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Rectal Prolapse
Rectal prolapse is a condition that can cause significant social impairment and negatively affects quality of life. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with the aim of restoring the anatomy and correcting the associated functional disorders.
  • 177
  • 28 Jul 2021
Topic Review
The History of Blood Vessel Anastomosis
Surgical technique and technology frequently coevolve. The brief history of blood vessel anastomosis is full of famous names. While the techniques pioneered by these surgeons have been well described, the technology that facilitated their advancements and their inventors deserve recognition. The mass production of laboratory microscopes in the mid-1800s allowed for an explosion of interest in tissue histology. This improved understanding of vascular physiology and thrombosis laid the groundwork for Carrel and Guthrie to report some of the first successful vascular anastomoses. In 1916, McLean discovered heparin. Twenty-four years later, Gordon Murray found that it could prevent thrombosis when performing end-to-end anastomosis. These discoveries paved the way for the first-in-human kidney transplantations. Otolaryngologists Nylen and Holmgren were the first to bring the laboratory microscope into the operating room, but Jacobson was the first to apply these techniques to microvascular anastomosis. His first successful attempt in 1960 and the subsequent development of microsurgical tools allowed for an explosion of interest in microsurgery, and several decades of innovation followed.
  • 172
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Foreign Bodies in the Liver in Children
Retention of foreign bodies (FB) in the liver parenchyma is a rare event in children but it can bring a heavy burden in terms of immediate and long-term complications. Multiple materials can migrate inside the liver. Clinical manifestations may vary, depending on the nature of the foreign body, its route of penetration and timing after the initial event. Moreover, the location of the FB inside the liver parenchyma may pose specific issues related to the possible complications of a challenging surgical extraction. Different clinical settings and the need for highly specialized surgical skills may influence the overall management of these children. 
  • 164
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Complicated Appendicitis during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Pre-Pandemic
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted volume, management strategies and patient outcomes of acute appendicitis. There is a significantly higher incidence of complicated appendicitis in children during the COVID-19 pandemic than in the pre-COVID-19 period. Additionally, a significantly higher proportion of children was managed via the NOM during the pandemic in comparison to the pre-pandemic period. 
  • 159
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Anal Stenosis
Anal stenosis (AS) is defined as anatomical or functional narrowing of the anal canal, which can result from inflammatory bowel diseases, radiation therapy, congenital malformations, or excisional hemorrhoidectomy. The anatomical AS is related to the increased fibrous scar tissue forming, which disables stretching of the anal canal. The leading cause of the anatomical AS is excisional hemorrhoidectomy that is often the chosen treatment for grade III and IV hemorrhoidal disease.
  • 155
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Helix
Helices are the most common secondary structural elements in many functional proteins and have attracted much interest when examining the formation kinetics from a coil structure. Measurements describing the timescale to a helix from a coiled structure have been substantially improved with the availability of spectrophotometers with a dramatically improved time resolution. Early studies showed that helix–coil transitions occur in the 100-nanosecond range with a model helix near room temperature.
  • 154
  • 01 Feb 2022
Topic Review Video
Interdisciplinary Management of Lung Cancer in European Community
Lung cancer continues to be the largest cause of cancer-related mortality among men and women globally, accounting for around 27% of all cancer-related deaths. Recent advances in lung cancer medicines, particularly for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), have increased the need for multidisciplinary disease care, thereby enhancing patient outcomes and quality of life. Different studies in the European community have evaluated the impact of multidisciplinary care on outcomes for lung cancer patients, including its impact on survival, adherence to guideline treatment, utilization of all treatment modalities, timeliness of treatment, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and referral to palliative care.
  • 152
  • 02 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Extensive Limb Lengthening
Limb lengthening for achondroplasia is controversial. Modern techniques of limb lengthening, using distraction osteogenesis, have been able to add significant length to the lower and upper limbs of children and adults with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. The long-term results of these treatments have remained unknown.
  • 152
  • 16 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Vascularization of the Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is a richly vascularized endocrine gland. It is an uneven organ located in a median position in the antero-lower region of the neck, between the fifth cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra.
  • 150
  • 29 Jan 2022
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