Topic Review
Endothelial Dysfunction and Chronic Inflammation
Vascular diseases of the elderly are a topic of enormous interest in clinical practice, as they have great epidemiological significance and lead to ever-increasing healthcare expenditures. The mechanisms underlying these pathologies have been increasingly characterized. It has emerged that endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammation play a diriment role among the most relevant pathophysiological mechanisms. As one can easily imagine, various processes occur during aging, and several pathways undergo irreversible alterations that can promote the decline and aberrations that trigger the diseases above. Endothelial dysfunction and aging of circulating and resident cells are the main characteristics of the aged organism; they represent the framework within which an enormous array of molecular abnormalities occur and contribute to accelerating and perpetuating the decline of organs and tissues.
  • 16
  • 31 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Dysmetabolic Iron Overload Syndrome
Dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS) corresponds to the increase in iron stores associated with components of metabolic syndrome (MtS) and in the absence of an identifiable cause of iron excess. DIOS is usually asymptomatic and can be diagnosed by investigating MtS and steatosis. About 50% of the patients present altered hepatic biochemical tests (increased levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase itself or associated with increased levels of alanine aminotransferase). The liver may present parenchymal and mesenchymal iron overload, but the excess of iron is commonly mild. Steatosis or steatohepatitis is observed in half of the patients. Fibrosis is observed in about 15% of patients. Hyperferritinemia may damage the myocardium, liver, and several other tissues, increasing morbidity and mortality.
  • 36
  • 31 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Metformin and Metabolism in Cancer Cells
Metformin has been a long-standing prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its beneficial effects on virus infection, autoimmune diseases, aging and cancers are also recognized. Metformin modulates the differentiation and activation of various immune-mediated cells such as CD4+ and CD+8 T cells. The activation of adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway may be involved in this process.
  • 24
  • 30 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Chamomile
Matricaria chamomilla L. (MC) and Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. (CN) are two varieties of Chamomile. These herbs have been used for thousands of years in Greece, Rome and ancient Egypt. Chamomile has been used for the treatment of stomach problems, cramps, dermatitis, and minor infections.
  • 61
  • 16 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Genetic Resistance to COVID-19 Virus Entry
Numerous efforts have been made to comprehend the pathogenic and host variables that contribute to COVID-19 susceptibility and pathogenesis. One of these endeavours is understanding the host genetic factors predisposing an individual to COVID-19. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have demonstrated the host predisposition factors in different populations. These factors are involved in the appropriate immune response, their imbalance influences susceptibility or resistance to viral infection.
  • 33
  • 13 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Epidemiology and Genetics of Mitochondrial Myopathies
Mitochondrial myopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases caused mainly by genetic mutations to proteins that are related to mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. The International Workshop of Experts in Mitochondrial Diseases defined mitochondrial myopathies as a group of progressive muscle conditions, primarily caused by the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).
  • 47
  • 11 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Eating Disorders in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, multifactorial disease that leads to menstrual and ovulatory irregularities, infertility, hyperandrogenism, and metabolic disturbances. It is recognized as the most prevalent endocrine/metabolic disorder in reproductive-aged women. Despite continuous research efforts, the unifying pathophysiological mechanisms that could explain the etiology of this complex disorder are still not fully understood. The interplay between genetic and epigenetic factors, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered protein and miRNA profiles, and environmental factors that also contribute to obesity lead to exaggerated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility with hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin resistance (IR). Compensatory hyperinsulinemia adds to increased ovarian androgen production and impaired oocyte development. The essential role of the frequent coexistence of mental disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is being increasingly recognized in the management of PCOS patients since it influences the success of weight loss interventions. Patients frequently experience disrupted eating behaviors, evidenced by the high prevalence of eating disorders in this population. Therefore, assessment and potential modification of eating disorders and eating-related behavior might be especially relevant to improve obesity treatment outcomes in this population, which remains the most efficient causal treatment in PCOS patients with high metabolic risk. 
  • 73
  • 26 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics for Human Monkeypox Disease
The monkeypox disease is a zoonotic-infectious disease that transmits between animals and humans. It is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Orthopoxvirus genus that is closely related to the variola virus –the causative agent of smallpox.
  • 46
  • 25 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Radiosynovectomy for the Treatment of Chronic Hemophilia Synovitis
A radiosynovectomy (RS) should be indicated when recurrent articular bleeds related to chronic hemophilia synovitis (CHS) exist, established by clinical examination, and confirmed by imaging techniques that cannot be constrained with hematological prophylaxis. RS can be performed at any point in life, mainly in adolescents (>13–14 years) and adults.
  • 82
  • 23 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Catheter Ablation in Treating Persistent Atrial Fibrillation
Catheter Ablation (CA) is an effective therapeutic option in treating atrial fibrillation (AF). Persistent AF represents the advanced stage during the progression of AF. “AF begets AF” is recognized as a main mechanism for the persistence of AF: a complex situation involving triggers and substrate (i.e., structural, electrical, and autonomic remodeling). Previous meta-analysis of RCTs including 809 persistent AF patients (mean age 60 years, mean LAD 46 mm) has already shown that PVI based CA is superior to AADs in preventing recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia among patients with persistent AF.
  • 101
  • 12 Dec 2022
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