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Void Nucleation in Metals
The research discussed about the development of micro-voids in metals, leading to ductile fracture, associated with plastic deformation, without taking into account the cleavage mechanism. Particular emphasis was placed on the results of observations and experimental studies, the characteristics of the phenomenon itself, without in-depth analysis in the field of widely used FEM modelling. The mechanism of void development as a fracture mechanism is presented. Observations of the nucleation of voids in metals from the turn of the 1950s and 1960s to the present day have been described. The nucleation mechanisms related to the defects of the crystal lattice as well as those resulting from the presence of second phase particles were characterised.
08 Oct 2022
Valorisation of Carbon-Rich Wastes as Secondary Resources
Carbon-based materials have become an indispensable component in a myriad of domestic and industrial applications. Most of the carbon-based end-of-life products discussed end up in landfills. Where recycling is available, it usually involves the production of lower-value products. The allotropic nature of carbon has been analysed to identify novel materials that could be obtained from used products, which also transform into a secondary carbon resource. Thermal transformation of carbon-rich wastes is a promising and viable pathway for adding value to waste that would otherwise go to landfills. The valorisation routes of four different carbon-rich wastes by thermal transformation are reviewed in the study—automotive shredder residue (ASR), textile wastes, leather wastes, and spent coffee grounds (SCGs). Textile wastes were thermally transformed into carbon fibres and activated carbon, while ASRs were used as a reductant to produce silicon carbide (SiC) from waste glass.
13 Jan 2023
Use of Secondary Carbon Bio-Carriers in Metallurgical Processes
The term ‘secondary carbon bio-carriers’ here refers to biomass, torrefied biomass, biochar, charcoal, or biocoke. The main focus is on torrefied biomass, which can act as a carbon source for partial or complete replacement of fossil fuel in various metallurgical processes. The material requirements for the use of secondary carbon bio-carriers in different metallurgical processes are systematized, and pathways for the use of secondary carbon bio-carriers in four main routes of steel production are described.
02 Dec 2022
Turbulence Simulation Approaches
Turbulent flow can be numerically resolved with different levels of accuracy. Many numerical approaches for solving turbulence have been proposed, such as the Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS), the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approaches. Among these numerical methods, the RANS approach, specifically the Eddy Viscosity Model (EVM), is widely used for calculating turbulent flows thanks to its relatively high accuracy in predicting the mean flow features and its more limited computational demands. However, this approach suffers from several weaknesses, e.g., compromised accuracy and uncertainties due to assumptions in the model construction and insufficient incorporation of the fluid physics. In the LES approach, the whole eddy range is separated into two parts, namely, the large-scale eddy and subgrid-scale (SGS) eddy. The former can be directly resolved, while the latter is computed using the SGS model. As the computing power rapidly increases, this approach is extensively used to study turbulence physics and to resolve low-to-medium Reynolds number flows.
13 Sep 2021
Tube High-Pressure Shearing
Tube high-pressure shearing (t-HPS) is a deformation processing, in which a tubular sample is subjected to azimuthal shearing under a hydrostatic pressure. The shear plane is in parallel to the cylindrical surface of the tube, and the shear direction is in the azimuthal direction.
25 Oct 2021
Tribological Behavior of Additively Manufactured Metal Components
Additive manufacturing (AM) has rapidly become a mainstream method of industrial production. Due to the involved layer-by-layer deposition, the amount of waste material can be limited, drastically reducing overall cost and conserving resources, unlike subtractive methods of manufacturing.
22 Nov 2022
Trends and Challenges in the Indian Steel Industry
India is the 4th largest iron ore producer and the 3rd largest coal producer in the world. Coal is also identified as one of the major sectors of “Make in India”, which is an initiative by the Government of India launched by the prime minister. India is also the world’s largest producer of sponge iron: about 37 million tons per annum.
22 Apr 2022
Stir Casting Routes for Metal Matrix Syntactic Foams
Metal matrix syntactic foams (MMSFs) are advanced lightweight materials constituted by a metallic matrix and a dispersion of hollow and/or porous fillers. Physical and mechanical properties can be fitted regarding matrix and filler properties and processing parameters. Their properties make them potential materials for sectors where density is a limiting parameter, such as transport, marine, defense, aerospace, and engineering applications. MMSFs are mainly manufactured by powder metallurgy, infiltration, and stir casting techniques. Stir casting techniques (SCTs) are low-cost and industrially scalable approaches. Critical limitations of SCTs are buoyancy of fillers, corrosion of processing equipment, premature solidification of molten metal during mixing, cracking of fillers, heterogeneous distribution, and limited incorporation of fillers. Efforts to overcome these limitations have led to the development of new techniques and to obtain MMSFs with improved properties.
19 Apr 2022
Steel Structural Property Correlation
The behaviour of plain carbon, as well as, structural steel is qualitatively different at different regimes of strain rates and temperature when they are subjected to hot-working and impact-loading conditions. Ambient temperature and carbon content are the leading factors governing the deformation behaviour and substructural evolution of these steels.
29 Jul 2022
Solid-State Welding of Steels
Welding is a joining process that permanently connects solid parts and forms components that cannot be divided without causing damage. Furthermore, welding is the most efficient and economical way to join similar or dissimilar materials with or without using filler material, heat, or external pressure. Welding can be processed in a variety of environments, including outdoors, inside, underwater, and even in outer space. The two main categories of welding methods, solid-state welding (SSW) and fusion welding, are processes to join metals. Fusion welding can be defined as the melting process of parent materials on facing surfaces with a filler material to form a weld bead. The fusion welding process comprises gas welding, arc welding, and intense-energy beam welding.
06 Jan 2023
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