Topic Review
Turbulence Simulation Approaches
Turbulent flow can be numerically resolved with different levels of accuracy. Many numerical approaches for solving turbulence have been proposed, such as the Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS), the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approaches. Among these numerical methods, the RANS approach, specifically the Eddy Viscosity Model (EVM), is widely used for calculating turbulent flows thanks to its relatively high accuracy in predicting the mean flow features and its more limited computational demands. However, this approach suffers from several weaknesses, e.g., compromised accuracy and uncertainties due to assumptions in the model construction and insufficient incorporation of the fluid physics. In the LES approach, the whole eddy range is separated into two parts, namely, the large-scale eddy and subgrid-scale (SGS) eddy. The former can be directly resolved, while the latter is computed using the SGS model. As the computing power rapidly increases, this approach is extensively used to study turbulence physics and to resolve low-to-medium Reynolds number flows.
  • 1.6K
  • 13 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Extraction of Metals from Copper Tailings through Leaching
A copper tailing is a residue, product of the flotation of sulfide minerals, which contain a variety of elements that can be valorized. The extraction of metals from copper tailings consist of applying metallurgical techniques, such as acid leaching or magnetic concentration, to obtain a valuable product. Currently, this is an important objective, given that mining operations have increased the generation of tailings. Acid leaching is a process that consists of dissolving a solid material, such as a tailing, by applying an acid solution. This process forms two final products: an insoluble solid, rich in aluminosilicates, and an acid liquid solution with different metal ions. Both products may have different characteristics and can be used for subsequent applications.
  • 1.6K
  • 05 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Nanojoining is the process of joining two or more surfaces together using nanomaterials as the primary building blocks. This includes, but is not limited to, nanosoldering, nanobrazing, nanowelding, nanoscale diffusion bonding, and additive manufacturing. Note that, like with conventional soldering and brazing, only the filler metal undergoes melting, not the base material. Nanomaterials are materials in which at least one dimension 100 nm or less and include 0-D (e.g. nanoparticles, 1-D (e.g. nanowires and nanorods), 2-D (e.g. graphene), and 3-D (e.g. nanofoam) materials. Nanomaterials exhibit several notable properties that allow joining to occur at temperatures lower than the melting temperature of their bulk counterpart. For example, the melting temperature of Ag is 961.78 °C, but Ag nanomaterials begin to melt at a much lower temperature that is dependent depending on the size and shape. These properties include high surface area to volume ratio, the Gibbs-Thompson effect, and high surface energy. The low joining temperature of nanomaterials has been exploited numerous times for flexible electronics, printable electronics, and soldering applications; only within the last two decades have they been explored for high-temperature joining applications (>450 °C).
  • 1.5K
  • 07 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys
Alloying has been very common practice in materials engineering to fabricate metals of desirable properties for specific applications. Traditionally, a small amount of the desired material is added to the principal metal. However, a new alloying technique emerged in 2004 with the concept of adding several principal elements in or near equi-atomic concentrations. These are popularly known as high entropy alloys (HEAs) which can have a wide composition range.
  • 1.5K
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Aluminum Alloy 5083
The semi-solid metal (SSM) 5083 aluminum alloy was developed for part manufacturing in the marine shipbuilding industry and including other industries using this material in the manufacture of parts.
  • 1.5K
  • 08 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Electrodeposition of Common Metals
The electrodeposition process of metals and their alloys is widely used in the automotive, space, electronics, computing, jewelry, and other consumer items industries.
  • 1.5K
  • 15 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Applications of Magnesium and Alloys
Since its discovery, magnesium has played an influential role in society. In its early days, military applications and wars fueled its growth. For example, magnesium was weaponized to construct incendiary bombs, flares, and ammunitions that were subsequently deployed in World War II, and it caused massive conflagrations and widespread devastations. Post-War, magnesium’s availability and unique blend of properties were explored and were found to be highly attractive for an extensive range of applications. Today, magnesium is used for engineering applications in automotive, aerospace, and consumer electronics. In addition, it has a role in organic chemistry and pharmaceuticals and is used to construct several general-purpose applications, such as sporting goods, household products, and office equipment.
  • 1.3K
  • 09 Oct 2021
Topic Review
China Intelligent Manufacturing Technology in the Steel Industry
Intelligent manufacturing, defined as the integration of manufacturing with modern information technologies such as 5G, digitalization, networking, and intelligence, has grown in popularity as a means of boosting the productivity, intelligence, and flexibility of traditional manufacturing processes. The steel industry is a necessary support for modern life and economic development, and the Chinese steel industry’s capacity has expanded to roughly half of global production.
  • 1.2K
  • 03 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing of Magnesium-Based Alloys through Laser-Based Approach
Magnesium alloys continue to be important in the context of modern and lightweight technologies. The increased use of Mg each year indicates a rise in demand for alloys containing Mg. With additive manufacturing (AM), components can be produced directly in a net shape, providing new ideas relating to the new prospects for Mg-based materials. 
  • 1.1K
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Biobeneficiation of PGMs
Conventional beneficiation of the Platinum Group of Metals (PGMs) relies on the use of inorganic chemicals. With the depreciation of high grade deposits, these conventional processes are becoming less economically viable. Furthermore, the use of chemicals has serious negative impacts on the environment. To address the challenges of conventional PGM beneficiation, biobeneficiation has been proposed. Bio-beneficiation is the concentration of mineral species by employing microorganisms that interact with either the gangue or the valuable mineral species. Bio-beneficiation can also be described as the use of microorganisms to interact with minerals to subsequently induce processes such as magnetic separation, flotation, and flocculation.
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  • 19 Jan 2022
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