Topic Review
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are generally defined as crystalline substances with a few atoms thickness.Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (2D-TMDs) semiconducting (SC) materials have exhibited unique optical and electrical properties. The layered configuration of the 2D-TMDs materials is at the origin of their strong interaction with light and the relatively high mobility of their charge carriers, which in turn prompted their use in many optoelectronic applications, such as ultra-thin field-effect transistors, photo-detectors, light emitting diode, and solar-cells. Generally, 2D-TMDs form a family of graphite-like layered thin semiconducting structures with the chemical formula of MX2, where M refers to a transition metal atom (Mo, W, etc.) and X is a chalcogen atom (Se, S, etc.). The layered nature of this class of 2D materials induces a strong anisotropy in their electrical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. In particular, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is the most studied layered 2D-TMD.
  • 1887
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Acoustic Metamaterials
Acoustic metamaterials are large-scale materials with small-scale structures. These structures allow for unusual interaction with propagating sound and endow the large-scale material with exceptional acoustic properties not found in normal materials. However, their multi-scale nature means that the manufacture of these materials is not trivial, often requiring micron-scale resolution over centimetre length scales.
  • 250
  • 03 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Anti-Graffiti Treatments on Natural Stone Materials
Graffiti vandalism represents an aesthetic and structural phenomenon of degradation both for buildings and cultural heritage: the most used sprays and markers can permeate the stone materials exposing them to degradation. Hence, great attention is being currently devoted to new non-invasive chemical approaches to face this urgent problem. This work is aimed at deeply examining the effects of some of the most sustainable chemical protective methods on the physical properties of natural building materials (e.g., tuff and limestone) by testing two commercial antigraffiti products.
  • 276
  • 21 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Austenite in Advanced High Strength Steels
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are developed to reduce vehicle weight without sacrificing passenger safety. The newly developed AHSS frequently incorporates the austenite as the intrinsic component with large amount and good stability, which is realized by carefully designed alloying elements and thermo-mechanical processing. 
  • 200
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Available Sampling Methods for Plastic Waste
Given the rapid development of plastics recycling in recent years, the need for guidelines for sampling and material characterization is steadily emerging. However, there still exists a considerable scarcity of methods that enable proper material data acquisition. It was found that neither the literature nor the standards provide a comprehensive practice that considers the distinctive characteristics of plastic waste and applies it to different situations along the value chain. Two variants of the proposed plan were evaluated based on the flake size distribution and the apparent density of four different pretreated polyolefin (PO) waste materials. Combining stratified random sampling with composite sampling yields a good sampling technique for rigid PO waste. Moreover, the analysis of a composite sample adequately conveys the true material properties of a sublot or lot.
  • 103
  • 31 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Binary Chalcogenides and Their Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Activities
Chalcogenides are essential in the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen fuel due to their narrow band gap energy. H2 is a clean fuel, and its usage can address many of the issues caused by using fossil fuels. It is widely used as a feedstock in the chemical industry to produce ammonia, methanol, and various fuels like diesel, gasoline, etc. It is also used as a transport fuel. It has several other applications in the production of metals and agricultural industries. A cost-effective and long-lasting chalcogenide-based photocatalysts can make the H2 generating process more economical and suitable. The use of binary chalcogenides and their modifications (compounds consisting of only one chalcogen and one electropositive atom) for photocatalytic water splitting will be discussed in the following subsections.
  • 91
  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Calcium Silicate-Based Materials - Antimicrobial
Endodontic materials have significantly improved dental treatment techniques in several aspects as they can be used for vital pulp treatments, as temporary root canal medication, in definitive fillings, in apical surgeries, and for regenerative procedures. Calcium silicate-based cement is a class of dental material that is used in Endodontics in direct contact with the dental structures, connective tissue, and bone. Because the material interacts with biological tissues and stimulates biomineralization processes, its properties are of major importance. The main challenge in endodontic treatments is the elimination of biofilms that are present in the root canal system anatomical complexities, as it remains even after chemical-mechanical preparation and disinfection procedures. Thus, an additional challenge for these biomaterials is to exert antimicrobial activity while maintaining their biological properties in parallel.
  • 341
  • 29 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Catalytic Mechanism of Photocatalysts Based on GCN Heterogeneous
In the current world situation, population and industrial growth have become major problems for energy and environmental concerns. Extremely noxious pollutants such as heavy metal ions, dyes, antibiotics, phenols, and pesticides in water are the main causes behind deprived water quality leading to inadequate access to clean water. In this connection, graphite carbon nitride (GCN or g-C3N4) a nonmetallic polymeric material has been utilized extensively as a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst for a variety of environmental applications.
  • 396
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Clinoptilolite Characterization and EDS Analysis
Zeolites are materials of biomedical interest, in particular owing to their ability to remove metabolic products such as uremic toxins (i.e., urea, uric acid, creatinine, p-cresol, and indoxul sulfate); they are used for the regeneration of dialysis solutions and as in vivo membranes for artificial kidney. Zeolites have further important applications in the biomedical field, in fact they are used as hemostats (due to their ability to absorb water), antiseptics (when modified with silver or zinc ions), carriers for drugs and genes (adjuvant in vaccines), glucose absorbers, etc. Here, EDS microanalysis in the study of a sample of natural clinoptilolite is reported. 
  • 624
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Concentration Cells Corrosion
In marine environments, microbial attacks on metallic materials result in microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), which could cause severe safety accidents and high economic losses. To date, MIC of a number of metallic materials ranging from common steels to corrosion-resistant ferrous alloys has been reported. The MIC process has been explained based on (1) bio-catalyzed oxygen reduction; (2) kinetics alternation of the corrosion process by increasing the mass transport of the reactants and products; (3) production of corrosive substances; and (4) generation of auxiliary cathodic reactants.
  • 213
  • 16 Sep 2022
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